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HUMAN ANATOMY

Kathryn Watson, MD

Introduction to Anatomy

(a)
Illustrations in slides: © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (unless otherwise indicated)

Overview of Anatomy

Anatomical terminology from ancient Greek and Latin Branches of anatomy
 Gross anatomy  Microscopic anatomy  Cytology  Histology  Developmental anatomy  Embryology  Comparative anatomy

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Hierarchy of structural organization from simplest to most complex Scale uses metric system

Structural organization from simplest to most complex       Chemical Cellular Tissue – group of cells similar in structure and function Organ – 2 or more tissue types performing specific function Organ system – group of organs acting together to perform specific function Human organism .

Organ systems            Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic/immune Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive .

 Branches Gross of anatomy anatomy Microscopic anatomy  Cytology  Histology Developmental  Embryology anatomy Comparative anatomy .

 Gross Anatomy   The anatomical position (see right) Directional and regional terms Anterior Posterior Superior Inferior Medial Lateral Proximal Distal Superficial Deep Cephalic Vertebral Thoracic Appendicular Brachial Lumbar    Body planes and sections Anatomical variability The human body plan .

cut into sections along a flat surface called a plane (also called coronal) (also called XS – cross section) .Body planes and sections .

The human body plan  Humans are vertebrates and share basic features Tube-within-a-tube  Bilateral symmetry  Dorsal hollow nerve cord  Notochord and vertebrae  Segmentation  Pharyngeal pouches  .

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between joints . Body cavities and membranes  Dorsal cavity divided into cranial and vertebral  Ventral cavity containing viscera (visceral organs) divided into two main cavities  Thoracic cavity   2 lateral pleural cavities Central mediastinum containing pericardial cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity  Abdominopelvic cavity    Serous   cavities are slit-like spaces lined by serous membranes (serosa): Parietal serosa forms the outer wall of the cavity Visceral serosa covers the visceral organ  Other smaller cavities: in head.

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Serosa .

peritoneum .) parietal or visceral Parietal serosa forms the outer wall of the cavity Visceral serosa covers the visceral organ 2. pleura. pleural. or peritoneal* Pericardial: heart Pleural: lungs Peritoneal: abdominal *The 2nd adjective can become a noun: pericardium.) pericardial.Naming of serous membranes (serosa) with 2 adjectives: 1.

 9 abdominal regions. 4 quadrants The important regions: epigastric umbilical inguinal. (or iliac) flank (side but in back) The 4 quadrants: RUQ LUQ RLQ LLQ .

What’s underneath…… .

Branches of anatomy Gross anatomy Microscopic anatomy Cytology: internal structure of cells Histology: see next Developmental anatomy Comparative anatomy .

 Histology Microscopic examination of the fine structure of organs. tissues and cells Tissues are prepared by fixation (preserved) and then cut into thin sections Artifacts (distortions. not real) .

Ciliated epithelium (a) 300x (b) 1700x (c) 2600x .

 Gross   anatomy  Microscopic anatomy Cytology Histology  Developmental  anatomy: embryology later  Comparative anatomy Different animals  Additionally  Pathology: structural changes caused by disease  Clinical anatomy  Medical imaging      X-ray imaging Advanced radiological studies  Computed tomography (CT)  Dynamic spatial reconstruction (DSR)  Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) PET scans (positron emission tomography) Sonography (ultrasound imaging) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) .

X-ray: electromagnetic rays. denser tissues block more and are whiter (photographically they’re negatives) .

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like sonar .Ultrasound – high frequency sound waves.

a form of x-ray .“CT” – computed tomography.

“DSA” – digital subtraction angiography .

“PET” scan – positron emission tomography .

“MRI” – magnetic resonance imaging .

complicated terms.  Find definitions and memorize terms: Anterior Posterior Superior Inferior Medial Lateral Proximal Distal Superficial Deep Cephalic Vertebral Thoracic Appendicular Brachial Lumbar .il/~medicine/Students/latin&Greekprefixes.html (or see copied on next pages) Many medical terms are built from Greek and Latin prefixes.ac. Knowing the common words enables one to quickly comprehend and understand many long.Terminology  Study and memorize the Greek and Latin prefixes and suffixes: http://www.technion.

heart. Autolysis is the destruction of body cells by bodily enzymes. Neuroalgia is a pain following the course of a nerve. Adeno.html ) Acro. Algia.the hairs above the eyelashes. Cut.living. A carcinogen is a substance which triggers cancer formation. Cost. Corona Crown. Arthritis is the inflammation of skeletal joints. Brachi. Acrophobia is a fear of heights.germ. Osteoblast is the germ of a bone cell. Bio. Albinsm is the white appearance of skin lacking melanin.body. Blephar.eyelash. The buccinator muscle is in the cheek. Chromosomes are so named because they took color easily when dye is added to a cell. Cholecestectomy is removal of the gallbladder. A blepharoplasty is eyelid surgery. Chole. Auto.extremity.trachea. Biology is the study of living organisms. A chondrocyte is a cartilage cell.pain.self. windpipe.gland. Cephal. Chroma. Bucc. Corpus albicans is the white body inside an ovary. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is fluid circulating within the brain and spinal cord. Angi.brain. Alba.Latin and Greek Prefixes and Suffixes (http://www. Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle run along the heart.bile. Broncho.cancer. Arthro.ac.head. the coronal suture and the corona of the glans penis. . The brachialis muscle moves the arm. Chondro.technion.head. De-capitate means "Off With the Head!" Carcin. encircling it like a crown. Supercilia are eyebrows -. bud.il/~medicine/Students/latin&Greekprefixes.cheek. Cephalon is another term for the brain. Cardia.eyelid.color. Cutaneous tissue is skin tissue. Costal cartilages attach ribs to the sternum.vessel. Adenoid is a lymph gland found in the nasopharynx. Bronchitis is the inflammation of the respiratory system. all structures which encircle something (like a crown).arm. (see capit-) Cerebro.white.The coronary ligaments of the liver (which encircle the liver like a crown). Blast. Cardiologist is a heart specialist.rib. Angioplasty is the repair of a blood vessel. Capit.cartilage.skin.joint. Corpus. Cili. gall.

Dermatologists are skin specialists.skin. Erythro. Dactyl.shape.milk.Galactose-Milk Sugur. (see hystero-) Morpho.breast.cell. Galactosemia is the lack of ability to digest one of milk's sugars. Endometrium is the inner lining of the uterus. Ilio. (see glosso-) Lipo. Part of the small intestine. Mamm.tongue. Liposuction is the removal of fat by suction tube. Galacto. Enteritis is inflammation of the intestines. (see alba-) Lingua. Hema. Gastric juices are produced in the stomach.liver. Glosso.tongue. Hemaglobin is a large molecule of the red blood cell.Cysti.uterus.stone. Cytology is the study of cells. Hypoglossal means "below the tongue". (see cut-) Dura. The macula lutea is a spot on the retina of an eyeball. Gastro.tough.ilium. Hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus. Lachry. Shock wave lithotripsy is a treatment for breaking up kidney stones. . Endomorphs are people whose physical shape extends to the limits of human dimension. Lumbar vertebrae are located in the lower back.stomach. Leuko.sac.spinal cord. Dura mater is the tough covering around the brain and spinal cord.breast. belly. Part of the hip bone. Ileo.tears.uterus. hard. Myelo. Metro.sugar. Mammogram is a picture of a breast.intestine.lower back. blotch. usually a female breast.ileum. Hyster. Macul.white.fat. Entero. Lumbo. Polydactylism is the presence of more fingers than is normal.spot. Glycosuria is sugar in the urine.red. Glyco. Hepato. Leukocytes are white cells of the blood. bladder.digits. Lacrimal glands secrete tears. Derma. Meninges are the coverings of the brain and spinal cord. The hepatic vein drains blood away from the liver. Mast. Sublingual glands are beneath the tongue.membrane. Erythrocytes are red blood cells. Poliomyelitis is inflammation of the grey matter of the spinal cord. Lith. Aren't we showing our obsession with breasts? Meningo. Cyto.blood.

Pulmo. Pepsin is an enzyme found in the digestive system. Onco. Nephrons are the functional units of a kidney.clot.disease.Otomycosis-fungal infection in ear Patho.vein. Trich. (see dura-) Stasis.organ.diaphragm. Oculo. Peps.nerve.ear. Pyruria is pus in the urine. Vas deferens is the vessel which carries sperm from the epididymus. duct. Myo-cardiac infarction is a problem with the heart muscle. Phlebitis is inflammation of the veins. Pneumonia is a disease of the lungs. Osteoporosis is porosity of bone. Homeostasis is the process of maintaining constant conditions within the body Thromb.kidney.animal. Zoology refers to the study of animals. Viscer. Atherosclerosis is hardening of the arteries. Phagocytes are cells (cyto-) which eat foreign material.love.Myo. Ophthalm. Neuro.eye. Rhinoplasty is a nose job Scler. Orchidectomy is removal of a testicle. Phren. Oto. Pneumo.digestion. Are lungs related to breasts? Pyo.muscle. to have an affinity for. Zoo. Trichosis is a disease of the hair. lump. Phago. Necrosis is death of cell tissue. Rhin.kidney. Ophthalmology is the study of eye and its diseases.eye. Osteo. Orchido. Vas. Otosclerosis is the formation of bone in the ear.mouth. Necro.vessel.hair.bone.stand still. Nephro. Philo. Thrombosis refers to a clot in the heart or blood vessel. Oro. Hydrophilic molecules are attracted to water (hydro-) Phleb. The oral cavity is the other name for the mouth. Visceral refers to organs. An oculist supplies eyeglasses. Odont. .testicle. Phrenic refers to a diaphragm.tooth. Osse-.hard.lung.lung. it is the study of cancerous tumours. Neurons are individual nerve cells. Pathogens are agents which cause disease.nose. Othodontics refers to repair of teeth.pus. Ren. Oncology is not doctors wearing pagers.death.tumour.eat. Renal artery supplies blood to the kidney.