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Phylum: Coelentrata or (Cnidaria


but solitary individuals occur also. . A majority grows together as colonies. but sponges and ctenophores are recognized now as separate phyla. which are simply organized animals having well-developed body tissue.Phylum: Coelentrata or (Cnidaria)      The coelenterates are aquatic invertebrates. gut) was applied to the sponges and ctenophores. Except for a few kinds adapted for existence in fresh waters. hollow. The word coelenterate (coel. The Cnidaria is employed for coelenterates by some zoologists. they are inhabitants of sea. enteron.

between them there is mesogloea. 3. The presence of two-layered body wall (ectoderm and endoderm).Chief characteristics of coelenterates are the following: 1. There is only one opening. 4. The coelenterates of radial symmetry. 2. . 5. There are tentacles around the mouth. which gives both entrance and exit. There are no respiratory or excretory organs and no central nervous system or circulatory system.

There is an alternation of generation between two forms in the life cycle of coelenterates. Medusa form: it is a planktonic form has an umbrella shape. Polyp form: it is soft. 2. cylindrical body attached to the floor by the lower part. This form has the ability to build a hard skeleton. and reproduces sexually. This form reproduces a sexual. while the upper part has the mouth (osculum) surrounded by tentacles. .Life cycle of coelenterates  1.

3. Class: Anthozoa. . 2. or both). medusa. skeleton nature (external or internal). Class: Scyphozoa. Coelenterates are classified on the basis of dominant form (polyp. and life type (benthonic or planktonic) into three classes: Class: Hydrozoa.Classification of coelenterates  1.

500 genera are recognized as fossils in this class. This class ranges in age from Proterozoic to the Recent. . and the skeleton has a conical shape.1. Class: Hydrozoa  This class characterized by the presence of non-divided cavity space.

It ranges in age from late Proterozoic to the Recent. Class: Scyphozoa  The organisms of this class have only a medusa form. 90 genera are recognized as fossils in this class. and according to this it secretes a hard skeleton. .2.

Order: Scleractinia. Class: Anthozoa. Sub-class: Octocorallia. Order: Tabulata.  1. 4. 2. 2300 genera are recognized as fossils in this class. 3. This class is subdivided into three sub-classes: Sub-class: Seriantipatharia. Order: Schizocorallia. and they are all marine animals.  1. . The organisms of this class have only a polyp form. Sub-class: Zoantharia. Sub-class Zoantharia are subdivided into four orders: Order: Tetracoralla (Rugosa). It ranges in age from Precambrian to the Recent. 2. 3.3.

Age: Pennsylvanian. Phylum: Coelentrata or (Cnidaria). Genus: Conularia.Conularia sp      Kingdom: Animalia. Class: Scyphozoa. .

Parasmilia sp          Kingdom: Animalia. which has a conical shape. . Order: Scleractinia. Description Parasmilia is a simple individual of Scleractinia. Genus: Parasmilia. Phylum: Coelentrata or (Cnidaria). Class: Anthozoa. Subclass: Zoantharia. Age: Lower Cretaceous.

.Septastrea sp        Kingdom: Animalia. Order: Scleractinia. Age: Miocene to Pliocene. Subclass: Zoantharia. Genus: Septastrea. Class: Anthozoa. Phylum: Coelentrata or (Cnidaria).

Subclass: Tabulata. Genus: Syringopora. Description The coral in this genus is compound and the individuals have a tabular shape parallel to each other. . Age: Permian. Class: Anthozoa. Phylum: Coelentrata or (Cnidaria).Syringopora sp         Kingdom: Animalia.

Genus: Hydra.Hydra     Kingdom: Animalia. . Class: Hydrozoa. Phylum: Coelentrata or (Cnidaria).