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Welding Metallurgy 2

Welding Metallurgy 2
Lesson Objectives When you finish this lesson you will understand: • The various region of the weld where liquid does not form • Mechanisms of structure and property changes associated with these regions
Learning Activities 1. View Slides; 2. Read Notes, 3. Listen to lecture 4. Do on-line workbook 5. Do homework

Keywords: Heat affected zone, Base metal, Solutionizing treatment, Aging, welding procedure, heat input, Hydrogen cracking, Carbon equivalent, Lamellar Tearing, Reheat Cracking, Knife-line attack,

Heat Affected Zone Welding Concerns

Heat Affected Zone Welding Concerns • Changes in Structure Resulting in Changes in Properties • Cold Cracking Due to Hydrogen .


Look At Two Types of Alloy Systems .


1979 . AWS.Cold Worked Alloy Without Allotropic Transformation Introductory Welding Metallurgy.

Welding Precipitation Hardened Alloys Without Allotropic Phase Changes Welded In: • Full Hard Condition • Solution Annealed Condition Introductory Welding Metallurgy. AWS. 1979 .

Annealed upon Cooling .

AWS. 1979 .Precipitation Hardened Alloy Welded in Full Hard Condition Introductory Welding Metallurgy.

AWS.Precipitation Hardened Alloys Welded in Solutioned Condition Introductory Welding Metallurgy. 1979 .

Reviewing the various procedures for welding precipitation hardened steels.Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min. what procedure would you recommend? Does it make any difference that this is austenitic stainless steel and not just plain carbon steel? .): • Precipitation hardened austenitic stainless steel is used for high strength applications like rocket components etc.


AWS. 1979 .Steel Alloys With Allotropic Transformation Introductory Welding Metallurgy.


Introductory Welding Metallurgy. 1979 . AWS.

We had an equation to determine the heat input before. the cooling rate can depend upon the preheat and the heat input.Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min. Many codes actually specify the range of heat inputs that can be used to weld certain materials. What is it? What processes have the highest Heat Inputs? The lowest? .): • As we saw.

Cracking in Welds Hydrogen Cracking • Hydrogen cracking.95.1.T12. requires all three of these factors – Hydrogen – Stress – Susceptible microstructure (high hardness) • Occurs below 300°C • Prevention by – Preheat slows down the cooling rate.5.1.2. this can help avoid martensite formation and supplies heat to diffuse hydrogen out of the material – Low-hydrogen welding procedure 0.12 . also called cold cracking.





Dickinson .

Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels Why Preheat? • Preheat reduces the temperature differential between the weld region and the base metal – Reduces the cooling rate.5. which reduces the chance of forming martensite in steels – Reduces distortion and shrinkage stress – Reduces the danger of weld cracking – Allows hydrogen to escape 0.95.1.T9.1.1.12 .

Using Preheat to Avoid Hydrogen Cracking • If the base material is preheated.Tbase)3 Cooling rate T . heat flows more slowly out of the weld region – Slower cooling rates avoid martensite formation Steel • Preheat allows hydrogen to diffuse from the metal T base Cooling rate T .Tbase)2 T base .

35 < CE < 0. as CE and plate thickness  .55 < CE treatment no preheat or postweld heat preheat preheat and postweld heat Steel CE = %C + %Mn/6 + %(Cr+Mo+V)/5 + %(Si+Ni+Cu)/15 • Preheat temp. which is necessary for hydrogen cracking – CE < 0.Interaction of Preheat and Composition • Carbon equivalent (CE) measures ability to form martensite.55 – 0.35 treatment – 0.

5.Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels Why Post-Weld Heat Treat? • The fast cooling rates associated with welding often produce martensite • During postweld heat treatment.T10. martensite is tempered (transforms to ferrite and carbides) – – – – Reduces hardness Reduces strength Increases ductility Increases toughness • Residual stress is also reduced by the postweld heat treatment 0.95.12 .1.1.1.

Postweld Heat Treatment and Hydrogen Cracking • Postweld heat treatment (~ 1200°F) tempers any martensite that may have formed – Increase in ductility and toughness – Reduction in strength and hardness Steel • Residual stress is decreased by postweld heat treatment • Rule of thumb: hold at temperature for 1 hour per inch of plate thickness. minimum hold of 30 minutes .


Base Metal Welding Concerns .

12 . sulfides and silicates.T14.Cracking in Welds Lamellar Tearing • Occurs in thick plate subjected to high transverse welding stress • Related to elongated non-metallic inclusions.2.5.95. lying parallel to plate surface and producing regions of reduced ductility • Prevention by – Low sulfur steel – Specify minimum ductility levels in transverse direction – Avoid designs with heavy through-thickness direction stress 0.1.1.

Improve Cleanliness Improve through thickness properties Buttering .

Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels Multipass Welds • Heat from subsequent passes affects the structure and properties of previous passes – Tempering – Reheating to form austenite – Transformation from austenite upon cooling • Complex Microstructure .95.1.

Steel Multipass Welds • Exhibit a range of microstructures • Variation of mechanical properties across joint • Postweld heat treatment tempers the structure – Reduces property variations across the joint .

2.T15.1.5.Cracking in Welds Reheat Cracking • Mo-V and Mo-B steels susceptible • Due to high temperature embrittlement of the heat-affected zone and the presence of residual stress • Coarse-grained region near fusion line most susceptible • Prevention by – – – – Low heat input welding Intermediate stress relief of partially completed welds Design to avoid high restraint Restrict vanadium additions to 0.1.1% in steels 0.12 .95.

Stainless Steel Knife-Line Attack in the HAZ HAZ • Cr23C6 precipitate in HAZ – Band where peak temperature is 8001600°F Weld Knife-line attack • Can occur even in stabilized grades – Peak temperature dissolves titanium carbides – Cooling rate doesn’t allow them to form again .