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Kinematics Hardware Mechanical Design Actuators

Dynamics Control System Task Planning Sensors

Software

Robot Kinematics.

– In order to control and programme a robot we must have knowledge of both it’s spatial arrangement and a means of reference to the environment. – KINEMATICS - the analytical study of the geometry of motion of a robot arm:

with respect to a fixed reference coordinate system s without regard to the forces or moments

s

z

**Co-ordinate Framesx
**

Camera Frame

x

y Right-handed Co-ordinate frame

Tool Frame x x Goal Frame x Base x Frame

Link Frame

Kinematic Relationship

– Between two frames we have a kinematic relationship - basically a translation and a rotation.

z x y

x

y

z

– This relationship is mathematically represented by a 4 × 4 Homogeneous Transformation Matrix.

Homogeneous Transformations

r1 r2 r3 3×3 Rotational Matrix r4 r5 r6 r7 r8 r9 0 0 0 ∆x ∆y ∆z 1 Global Scale 3 × 1 Translation

1 × 3 Perspective

Kinematic Considerations

Using kinematics to describe the spatial configuration of a robot gives us two approaches: s Forward Kinematics. (direct)

s

– Given the joint angles for the robot, what is the orientation and position of the end effector?

s

Inverse Kinematics.

– Given a desired end effector position what are the joint angles to achieve

Inverse Kinematics

For a robot system the inverse kinematic problem is one of the most difficult to solve. s The robot controller must solve a set of non-linear simultaneous equations. s The problems can be summarised as:

s

– The existence of multiple solutions. –

Multiple Solutions

Goal

• This two link planar manipulator has two possible solutions. • This problem gets worse with more ‘Degrees of Freedom’. • Redundancy of movement.

**Non Existence of Solution
**

Goal • A goal outside the workspace of the robot has no solution.

• An unreachable point can also be within the workspace of the manipulator - physical constraints. • A singularity is a place of ∞ acceleration - trajectory tracking.

Kinematics → Control

s

Kinematics is the first step towards robotic control.

Cartesian Space z x y

Joint Space

Actuator Space

**Joint Space Trajectories
**

For a robot to operate efficiently it must be able to move from point to point in space. s A trajectory is a time history of position, velocity and acceleration for each joint. s Trajectories are computed at run time and updated at a certain rate - the Path Update Rate. (PUMA robot

s

**Joint Space Trajectory Planning
**

(θ0 , t0) A Consider a robot with only one link. •Kinematics gives one configuration for B. B (θf , tf) •Choice of two trajectories to get there. •May wish to specify a via point - maybe to avoid an obstacle.

**Joint Space Schemes.
**

We need to describe path shapes in terms of functions of joint angles. θ(t) angle

s θf Lots of choices for continuous functions 0 tf time

θ0

Cubic Polynomials

– To move a single revolute joint from A to B in a given time gives four constraints. • A starts at rest and at angle θ0 θ ( 0 ) = θ0 θ ( 0 ) = 0

θ (t f ) = θ f θ (t f ) = 0

•

B finishes at rest and at angle θf

A cubic polynomial has four co-efficients which satisfy the four constraints:

**θ ( t ) = a0 + a1t + a2t + a3t
**

2

3

**An Exercise for you:
**

s

a0 = θ0

Place the initial constraints into the formulae for position, velocity and acceleration and prove that the coeffecients are:

a1 = 0

3 a2 = 2 (θ f − θ0 ) tf

2 a3 = − 3 (θ f − θ0 ) tf

**An exercise for us
**

– Given a single link robot arm with a revolute joint. Construct a cubic path function to take it from it’s present rest at 10 degrees to finish at rest at a desired end position of 110 degrees.

a0 = θ0

a1 = 0

3 a2 = 2 (θ f − θ0 ) tf

2 a3 = − 3 (θ f − θ0 ) tf

Making A Spline.

s angle Via points B

**A via point gives a constraint with
**

θ ( tvia ) = θvia

• •

A

tvia1

tvia2

time

**More Joint Space Schemes
**

s

Quintic Polynomials.

– The cubic polynomial does not specify accelerations at the start and end of the motion. This adds two more constraints which can only be represented by a quintic polynomial. i.e. a5t5

s

**Linear Functions with parabolic Blends.
**

– Linear function requires an infinite acceleration to get it started so parabolic

Kinematics → Control

s

Kinematics is the first step towards robotic control.

Cartesian Space z x y

Joint Space

Actuator Space

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