Seminar on Charles Garnier

Charles Garnier

Charles Garnier (6 November 1825 - 3 August 1898) was a French architect ,designer of the Paris Opéra and the Opéra de Monte-Carlo

Jean Louis Charles Garnier (1825-1898) was a French architect of the exuberant neobaroque style, an outgrowth of the effervescent but stricter classicism of Napoleon III's Second Empire style that began in the early 1850s. Charles Garnier was born on Nov. 6, 1825, in Paris. He attended the École de Dessin, the atelier of Louis Hippolyte Lebas, and the École des Beaux-Arts in 1841, and he also worked for Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc. Garnier spent 5 years in Italy after winning the Grand Prix de Rome in 1848.

Garnier entered the competition for the Académie Nationale de Musique, better known as the Opéra, in Paris in 1861. He won fifth prize in the first stage of a two-phase competition and later that year won the commission. The Opéra was built from 1862 to 1867; the interiors were not completed until 1874. Sited on an irregular diamond adjacent to the Grand Boulevard, the structure was inspired, according to Garnier, by Michelangelo and Jacopo Sansovino. The Opéra provided a setting for Parisian society. The foyer, grand staircase, and auditorium are spacious open, and rich in decoration. Empress Eugénie had favored the project by Viollet-le-Duc and did not admire Garnier's sumptuousness, even though it suited the period. When asked by the Empress whether the Opéra was in the style of Louis XIV, XV, or XVI, Garnier tactfully replied, "It is of Napoleon III."

The same plastic richness of effect was used by Garnier in his Casino in Monte Carlo (1878; extended 1881), even though the finish is in stucco. Its magnificent site facing the bay is again a stage setting, this time for the wealthy gamblers' game of roulette. The game rooms, salons, and waiting rooms are sumptuous.

After the Casino, Garnier's style mellowed considerably in a host of works ranging from churches, libraries, hotels, and houses to tombs, including the tombs of his musical contemporaries Bizet (1880) and Offenbach (1883) in Paris. Garnier died on Aug. 3, 1898.

• Garnier did not fit into the emerging movements of functionalism or expressive structure, even though the structural innovations of the Opéra were of predominant significance. Structure for its own sake, as in the Eiffel Tower, he considered hideous. His plan for the Opéra, he freely admitted in his book Le Nouvel Opéra de Paris (1875-1881), was based upon no theory: "I leave success or failure to chance alone." The sweeping dynamic movement of Garnier's neobaroque can be found in the more linear forms of Art Nouveau.

Architecture And Landscaping
• French architect, a student of Lebas. During his time as a pensionnaire in Rome (1848–54) he visited Greece and Turkey, and seems to have been more enchanted with Byzantine and other styles than he was with Ancient Greek architecture, although he investigated the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina, largely from the point of view of its colouring in Antiquity. When he returned to Paris he worked for a period under Ballu, but took on what private commissions he could obtain.

He made his name with his designs (won in competition) for the Opéra in Paris (1861–75), the most luxuriant building of the Second Empire and of the Beaux-Arts style, yet one in which the disposition of the main elements is immediately clear from the exterior. Garnier drew his inspiration from the Italian Renaissance, notably the architectural visions of Paolo Veronese (1528–88), the Venetian painter, while echoes of Sansovino are detectable. The lavish staircase mingled Baroque and Venetian Renaissance themes.

The Opéra was immensely successful and influential, its confident brashness finally laying the drier aspects of French Rationalism to rest, and setting the agenda for public architectural style in France until 1914. The Opéra has tended to overshadow Garnier's many other architectural achievements. His ebullient interpretation of Italian and French Renaissance styles can be seen in a number of his works, including the Cercle de la Librairie (1878–9), 117 Boulevard St-Germain, the Maison Hachette apartment-block at 195 on the same Boulevard (1878–80), and, especially, the Casino, Monte Carlo (1876/8–9).

The last, a lushly festive concoction, Influenced the style of buildings along the Riviera and in other seaside resorts. In the 1890s, however, the Casino theatre was altered to enable large-scale operatic performances to take place, and in 1897 Garnier protested, in vain, to the architect Henri Schmit (1851–1904) about the changes to his work. He published his theory of theatre design in Le Théâtre (1871) and Nouvel Opéra de Paris (1878–81). His reconstruction of the temple at Aegina (complete with polychrome decorations) was published in Le Temple de Jupiter panhellenique à Egine (1884), and he also published works on domestic architecture in Constructions élevées aux Champs de Mars (1890) and L'Habitation humaine (1892).

• In France • In Paris : – Palais Garnier – Théâtre Marigny (ex-Panorama de Marigny) – The circle of the librairy, boulevard Saint-Germain – The hôtel particulier rue du Docteur-Lancereaux (the "maison opéra") – Tomb of Jacques Offenbach, cimetière de Montmartre (1880) – The Ateliers Berthier, on the boulevard of the same name, the annex of the Opéra and it's fabrication workshops for decorations and storage of costumes and scenery. This building was his last realisation.

• •

In Provence : – The casino and thermal baths of Vittel – The église of Chapelle-en-Thiérache – The Astronomical Observatory in Nice (in collaboration with the engineer Gustave Eiffel) Abroad In Monaco : – The casino, the opéra and the Grand Hôtel de Paris in Monte Carlo In Bordighera, Italy where he stayed often, he was the architect of: – The Église de Terrasanta – The École Communale, today the Mairie de la ville – Villa Bischoffsheim (now the Villa Etelinda) – Villa Garnier (1872) – Villa Studio

Paris Opera
• Paris opera is situated at paris france. It is built in 1857-1874. it is theatre type building. It is made up of masonry and cut stone. It is based on neo-baroque style . Polychrome facade, opulent staircase. Commission by competition. The Opera Garnier, not to be confused with the modern L'Opera de Bastille, built recently in

Some views of Opera

The Paris Opera House is one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. It contains levels beyond levels of cellars, fountains, chandeliers and even its own ghost! The history of this performance hall is dark and interesting, and spans from architecture to literature and music.

The total area of the building reaches 118,403 sq.ft. Under the stage, five levels with a combined total height of 50 ft (add to this 16 ft of foundation depth) give access to the machinery. Backstage, there are about fifty available sets which can appear as shows dictate, going up and sliding out of spectator view over a height of 148 ft, or about 15 floors.

The most impressive is probably the biggest sloping set in the world designed to ensure a better perspective view. With 89 ft of depth and 157 ft of width, it can accommodate up to 200 dancers, mimes, actors and even animals. In fact, the main stage is so big that the entire Arch of Triumph could fit on it! It is true that the period favored spectacular staging, with lush sets and the most extravagant special effects. It was possible for a carriage drawn by several horses (for which stables were set up in the basement) to enter the stage.

During a performance of Verdi’s Aïda, an elephant from the “Jardin des Plantes” (Paris zoo) was brought in. When “Les Indes Galantes” of Rameau was performed, different perfumes were dispersed for each different short scene. Even ostriches were once brought in to lend a more exotic air, but that idea was quickly abandoned when they started biting the extras! True super productions were offered to stunned and amazed spectators. On the day of its inauguration, the Opera had a little more than 2,000 seats, making it at that time the largest opera house in the world.

Hotel De Paris — Monte Carlo,

The Prestigious Hotel De Paris Is Situated On The Golden Square Of The Place Du Casino And Was The First Hotel Built In Monte Carlo In 1864. The Hotel Is Located In The Heart Of Monte Carlo In Front Of The Casino And The Cafe De Paris. Hotel De Paris Offers A Unique Selection Of Guestrooms, Junior Suites And One And Two Bedroom Suites. Each Room Is Individually Decorated With A King Or Twin Beds. Most Rooms Are Located In The Rotonde Wing Of The Hotel With Views Of The Mediterranean, Harbor Of Monte Carlo, Casino Square And City Of Monte Carlo. The Hotel Features Several Restaurants Including Fine Dining At Le Louis XV.

• Charles Garnier employed all the modern techniques. He didn’t like iron, a material he found too cold, but he understood that using it would open up a whole new world of possibilities. So he did choose an entirely metallic structure for the new building but was careful to conceal it, a really novel idea at this time in the world of architecture. He also believed in the future of electricity, but that technology was not yet very developed. He did use this modern energy to ring the bells that called the spectators back to their seats after the intermission, and for certain stage effect devices.

He studied how to set up a gas heating and ventilation system that would be as efficient as possible while offering better comfort to the spectators. His pursuit of all available innovations even crossed over into interior design. He wanted gold to glisten in this dazzling and enchanting palace he was giving Paris, but his budget was limited. So he used the brand new technique of “gilding effect” to replace exorbitantly priced gold leaves. It was just a matter of applying bright gold paint in places where light would reflect, and lighter ochre in the hollows to give more relief. There was an outcry when Parisians convinced themselves that huge sums of money had been spent to achieve this. This, however, was not the case as it was only paint with a fantastic visual effect.

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