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Market halls and galleries of late 18th -20th century Submitted by : Shikha 2k6/ARCH/652
I9TH CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
The Industrial Revolution, underway by the middle of the 18th century and emerging first in England, is often cited as the single most important development effecting architecture in the modern world. The harnessing of coal and steam energy combined with new mechanized technologies and industrial materials, especially iron, steel and glass, brought sweeping changes throughout the fabric of society. Architectural commissions from ecclesiastical, royal and noble patrons were replaced by a new class of public authorities and private patrons, the leaders of the modern industrialized state. A changed societal structure required new types of buildings unimagined in a previous age: government offices, banks, hospitals, theaters, libraries, educational institutions, museums, railroad stations, factories, market places,warehouses, commercial buildings such as department stores and a whole range of new types of housing for every social class from factory workers to industrial barons required innovative engineering and design solutions, mostly within rapidly evolving urban settings.
Supporting these fundamental changes in society was the intellectual and aesthetic developments of the Enlightenment a broad trend in 18th-century European philosophy fostering rational thought in religious, political and economic matters and the idea of promoting progress for a broad swath of mankind The emergence of technological developments in 19th-century building systems, most importantly cast iron used for the superstructure of many buildings, seemed as swift, startling and unrelenting as digital technology seems in the 21stcentury. Exemplifying this development is the Bibliotheque SainteGenevieve in Paris, designed by Henri Lebrouste and built from 1842 to 1850. The reading room recalls the monastic libraries of Medieval and Renaissance Italy, but the enormous scale is possible only by exploiting ironwork for two rows of arches supported by stone outer walls and a line of iron columns in the center of the space
More spectacular structures of iron, such as the Eiffel Tower and the vast steam-filled railroad stations of Paris and London, demonstrate the engineering marvels of the period and the optimism of a new age.
In 19th century several built form types were built using the new construction material Some of the most spectacular built form types built in 19th century includes the following Bridges Garden structures Work places Market places Cultural buildings Railheads Religious buildings
Market halls of late 18th -19th century
Großmarkthalle (Wholesale Market Hall), located in the Ostend of Frankfurt am Main, was the city's main wholesale market, especially for fruit and vegetables
The massive structure on the right bank of the Main, immediately adjacent to Frankfurt's east port (Osthafen), was designed by Martin Elsaesser. It was inaugurated on October 25, 1928. With a length of 220 m, a width of 50 m and a height of 17 to 23 m (722 by 164 by 55 to 75 ft), it was the city's largest architectural unit at the time. It provided 13,000 square metres (140,000 ft2) of space for a total of 130 stalls, most of which served large-scale customers, such as hospitality businesses or retailers. The building, and its surroundings, also hosted offices and storage space for wholesalers, shipping companies and agencies.
From October 1941 onwards, the National Socialists used the Großmarkthalle as a collecting point for the deportation of Jewish men, women and children from Frankfurt and its region. Since 1997, this locally important role within the holocaust is recognised by a commemorative plaque The Großmarkthalle, locally known as "Gemieskersch" (Frankfurt Hessian for "Gemüsekirche", literally "vegetable church"), has been a listed building since 1984. In 2004, its function was transferred to the "Frischezentrum Frankfurt" in the suburban district of Kalbach-Riedberg, with a total of 128,000 square metres (1,380,000 ft2) of space, including 23,000 square metres (250,000 ft2) for retail purposes.
Architecture of the hall
•The Großmarkthalle Frankfurt am Main is a massively built hall with a roof freely spanning 50 m (164 ft). •At the time of its construction it was the world's widest monocoque construction. •The entirety of the area is roofed by 15 barrel vaults with a support span of 36.9 m (121 ft) and a vault span of 14.1 m (46 ft). •The concrete "barrels" (Zeiss-Dywidag barrels) are made of concrete and are only 7 cm (23/4 in) thick. Their basic form is a half ellipse of 6 m (20 ft) height. •It was realised between 1926 and 1928 by Franz Dischinger and Ulrich Finsterwalder . •The hall itself was built in only 24 weeks by the companies Dyckerhoff & Widmann AG and Wayss & Freytag AG.The total cost of constructions was 15,372,000 RM.
New use by the European Central Bank
On 1 January 2005, the City of Frankfurt transferred the Großmarkthalle and its area to the European Central Bank (the sale contract had been signed in 2002), which will erect its headquarters there.
The hall will be preserved. It will mainly house the public functions of the ECB, such as a visitors' area, the staff restaurant, as well as press and conference spaces. The space between the hall and the Main river will be taken up by the Skytower, a complex of two intertwined 180 m (590 ft) skyscrapers, designed by the Vienna-based Coop Himmelb(l)au. It is projected for completion in 2011. A memorial for the deported Jews will also be created, in close cooperation with the Jewish Museum Frankfurt. In November 2006, the planning committee of Frankfurt accepted a proposal to de-list the so-called annexbauten, two transversal buildings added to the narrow ends of the hall, originally serving clerical and social functions. The local heritage authorities have permitted the demolition of these structures. Furthermore, the western third of the hall's roof, destroyed in World War II and restored thereafter will be cut by a diagonal structure placed partially inside and partially outside the hall so as to "let the building's new function spread beyond its confines
Market Hall (1912) Munich, Germany
THE FIRST LARGE MARKET HALL TO BE BUILT OF REINFORCED CONCRETE WAS MOST LIKELY MUNICH'S GROSSMARKTHALLE. CONSTRUCTION WAS COMPLETED IN 1912 ON THIS MAGNIFICENT STRUCTURE THAT WAS BUILT NEAR THE THE SüDBAHNHOF (SOUTH TRAIN STATION). IT REPRESENTED A SIGNIFICANT STEP IN THE EXPRESSION OF THE NEW MATERIAL DUE NOT ONLY TO ITS SIZE (30,000 SQM, 18,000 M OF BEAMS AND 4,500 M OF COLUMNS AND PILES), BUT ALSO THE ARTICULATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION AS SEEN IN THE CLERESTORY WINDOWS AND END FACADES. SCHMIDT(1) FOUND THAT,
"ITS IMPRESSIVE VERTICAL DEVELOPMENT SEPARATES THIS BUILDING FROM THE NORMAL WAREHOUSES AND GIVES IT A VERY SPECIAL CHARACTER." ARCHITECT SCHACHNER(2) STATED THAT, "...THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HALL IS DERIVED COMPLETELY FROM THE CONSTRUCTION, AND THIS SHOULD BE EVIDENT IN THE EXTERIOR EXPRESSION OF THE HALL." THERE WAS A MOVEMENT BY A GROUP OF CITIZENS OF MUNICH WITH A NUMBER OF "ENGROS" DEALERS TO SIMPLY REPLACE THE EXISTING HALL WHICH WAS IN THE MIDDLE OF THE CITY. THE WHOLESALERS, ON THE OTHER HAND, WISHED TO MOVE THE HALL TO THE EDGE OF THE CITY WHERE THE TRAIN CONNECTIONS WERE MORE CONVENIENT. MUNICH'S COMMISSIONERS DECIDED ON THE 19TH OF APRIL, 1902 TO DESIGNATE A SITE OCCUPIED BY OLD PUBLIC WAREHOUSES AT THE EDGE OF THE CITY NEAR THE SUDBAHNHOF. THE EXISTING STRUCTURES WERE RAZED IN 1903 AND THE NATIONAL RAILWAY (REICHSBAHN) BEGAN LAYING NEW TRACKS FOR THE FUTURE EXPANSION.
The city architect, Richard Schachner, undertook a trip in 1903-04 to visit contemporary large market hall construction in large cities throughout Europe (Brussels, Paris, Vienna, Budapest, Leipzig, Dresden and Berlin). His travels resulted in the decision to design a hall completely in reinforced concrete. Schachner stated goal(4) was that; "the entire market hall, including the entrance hall, should be read as a singular unit; it should give an enduring friendly, bright and lofty impression.“
The original design called for four soaring individual halls that had load-bearing structures of indeterminate fixed frames with lower "connecting" roofs spanning the distance between them. This external expression of four halls remained as the design developed. However, despite its appearance, the market hall was actually one single floor space of 10,860 sqm in which the ceiling was articulated with two types of
The floor plans and the form of the hall's cross-section had been designed by the architect who also stated that they could not be changed; they were already determined. The high profile and general dimensions of the frames were, under all circumstances, to remain as they had been
Rueb's structural calculations showed that it would be best to design the main spaces as two-hinged frames instead of fixed frames. This small change in the structural system allowed a simplification on many levels: the long and complicated calculation of all of the various loading conditions of an indeterminate structure would be eliminated, and the erection would be simplified in that the lower frames would be constructed first and then used to support the formwork for the frames. Hinges of pieces of roofing-paper placed in the shuttering of the lower frames separated the building's superstructure into two parts: the two hinged frames which underwent the greatest temperature differences, and the lower frames and basement with their almost constant temperature. Thus, a slight structural design variation resulted in great benefits.
Each of the main halls had a total clear height of 20 m, length of 97.6 m, and width of 16.5 m. Between these spaces were lower buildings of simple stiff skeletons with a height of 7.20 m and width of 8.80 m
The two-hinged frames of the main halls were supported by the lower buildings, and had a spacing of 8.84 m along the length of the hall with a height of 12.80 m. The forms for the frames were pre-fabricated in pieces on the building site and assembled at the point immediately below where they were to be used. These pieces were then hoisted into place with a steam-crane and the concrete rammed into the formwork
A basement with an average height of 5.1 m lay below the entire market hall. This is where one found the temperate, cold and deep-freeze storage areas. As excavation commenced, it was found that the site contained high quality gravel and sand. This material was sorted and immediately used in the pouring of the footings and walls of the foundations. That material which could not be immediately used was stored next to the site for later use. A building truly related to its site.
The form of this hall calls to mind a cross between a Cathedral and a warehouse. Indeed, the market hall in Munich was a cathedral to the "new master" of the economy. The architectural intention to create the representational association with exactly these images was the dictating factor for the choice of structural form. The articulation of the interior space was dependent upon the skeletal nature of the load-bearing structure. The primary, secondary and tertiary elements are clear. One can also note in the same view that the addition of the structurally required hinges had absolutely no effect on the desired architectural expression.
The gabled-roof was not set upon an arched interior, but is an exposed load-bearing structure. And yet, the weather skin of the Outside was of the traditional tiles. The acceptance, or possibility, to directly show the reinforced concrete was not yet available
Leipzig Market Hall
the city of Leipzig has fundamentally shaped the history of Saxony and of Germany. Leipzig has always been known as a place of commerce and still has a large trade fair ground.
Market Hall Leipzig front view top view
Central Market Hall
Budapest’s huge Central Market Hall, also known as the Great Market Hall, is the city's largest indoor market. The beautiful historic structure ,Just prior to the turn of the 20th century, when the cities of Buda, Pest, and Obuda merged to form one, city leaders recognized a need for more and better market places for the burgeoning city. The decision was made to build covered markets similar to those in larger European cities, such as Paris.
The Great Market Hall and would be situated on the Pest end of the Liberty Bridge. A competition was held to determine the architect for this grand market. Samu Petz was chosen and construction commenced in 1894.
The cavernous structure was supported by slender steel columns, allowing for extensive sunlight to make its way into the market. The attractive outside facade was by Zsolnay, a Hungarian tile factory with an international reputation.
Sometimes referred to as “a symphony in iron”, this ornate market had a canal that ran through the center, allowing goods to be delivered to the market’s traders via barge. According to historic records, the early market was divided down the center by a thruway for wagons. Wholesalers were situated on the west and retailers on the east. There were also designated areas for meat traders, fish stalls, poultry stalls, and vegetable, fruit, cheese, and butter stands.
Budapest’s Central Market Hall was extensively damaged during World War II and in their haste to rebuild, contractors took short cuts and the newly reconstructed market lacked the splendor and strength of the original. It closed in 1991 after it was deemed hazardous and near collapse.
a veiw of meat shop inside the market
Hungarian arts and crafts exhibition
Rebuilding the Market
In the mid-1990s, the city government decided to restore this grand monument. Renovations were made to both the interior and exterior and new Zsolnay tiles were crafted for the roof. The result was a clean, bright, colorful new market that serves the needs of the city’s residents and its many visitors. one can find three stories of stalls selling a variety of wares. On the busy ground level, there are lots of fruit and vegetable vendors. In the basement, there’s a supermarket, a number of fishmongers, and vendors selling game meat. On the upper floor, beautiful Hungarian arts and crafts are the most common fare
COVERED MARKET HALL IN BERLIN, 1865-1868
The 19th century brought the large commercial building into the modern metropolis. As a result of growth in industrial production, space devoted to the sale and distribution of goods in cities expanded rapidly. Various architectural solutions were adopted to meet the new requirements, including large covered markets, where great quantities of goods could be sold under one roof, and arcades made up of roofed pedestrian streets lined with shops. The purposes for which covered markets were built dictated the shape of the interior. This was not unlike the nave of a church, often widened by transepts, with stalls arranged around the sides and covered by glazed roofs.
Such a layout was seen in Victor Baltard's great development of the Halles Centrales in Paris (1851 —66), and Friedrich Hitzig's covered market in Berlin (1865-68), lit by gaslight and complete with storage space. The shopping arcade meant that articles for sale could be temptingly displayed in the windows, illuminated by natural light from the glass root, or by gaslight. Among the most attractive were the Galerie d'Orleans in Paris ( 1829) bv Fontaine and Percier; the Burlington Arcade in London (1818-19) designed by Samuel Ware; the Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele II (1865—77) in Milan; and the Cleveland Arcade in Ohio (1889-90).
Caste iron column support the six – aisled building with total surface area of 5300 square metres. From the point of hygiene , this market hall represented significant progress . It had running water for fish vendor’s sinks, toilet facilities and gas lighting .
Yet the private enterprises was not a success . after the early bankruptcy of its operators, the halls stood empty until being rebuild into a circus in 1874. It was finally redesigned by Hans poelzig to become Max Reinhardt's Grobes Schauspielhaus in 1919.
Victor Baltard and Felix Callet Central Market Halls in paris,1854-1857 extended 1860-1866
A hall begun in 1851, an unhappy combination of stone and iron, was abandoned in midconstruction, probably in the instruction of napoleon III. The new city perfect Georges – Eugene Haussman’s most important architectural colleague, therefore proposed a new design which was subsequently executed. In this all the modern building materials has been used that includes glass, iron, and steel
Interior of market
GALLERIES OF LATE – EARLY 20TH CENTURY
Galleries were covered shopping street that offered protection from the weather . The covered streets were flanked by an arcade of shops
Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele II
built between 1864 and 1878.
The Vittorio Emanuele Gallery has a 19th century atmosphere, enhanced by the elegance of some of Milan's finest stores. The Galleria was designed by architect Giuseppe Mengoni, Flanking the Piazza dell Duomo is the grand structure known as the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II. Designed in 1861 and built between 1865 and 1877, this beatiful piece of architecture was the first of its kind to incorporate the elements of iron and glass which form its vaulted ceilings and central dome. Tragically, the architect, Giuseppe Mengoni fell to his death while inspecting the decorative details of the dome just two days before King Vittorio Emanuele led the galleria's opening ceremony.
This vast Belle Epoque shopping arcade was built to link the Piazza del Duomo to the Piazza della Scala and soon became Milan’s conservatory. Winter and summer, Milanesi can be seen here, escaping the rain, browsing the exclusive shops and sipping
Main entrance to the gallery
This is essentially a roofed-over shopping center, but a very elegant and historical one, built from 1865 to 1867 in the very center of Milan. It was named after the thenreigning king of Italy, who was in fact the first king of Italy after unification. it's very convenient because it's the shortest way to walk between the Cathedral Square (Piazza Duomo) and the opera house (Teatro alla Scala).
This vast Belle Epoque shopping arcade was built to link the Piazza del Duomo to the Piazza della Scala and soon became Milan’s conservatory. The cross-shaped Vittorio Emanuele Gallery is another attraction of Milan, known all over the world. It is actually said that is the most famous shopping center..
Two huge triumphal archways open in the Dome square on one side and in Piazza della Scala on the other side. The center of the gallery is dominated by the impressive glass and iron dome and each side hosts book and record shops, coffee
The grand scale and detail of this beautiful building is impressive! The decorative details inside are equally impressive--beautiful marble and mosaic floors or up to the stained-glass dome. One can find upscale bistro restaurants and shops such as Prada and Bernasconi. Just outside there is a sidewalk cafe where one may sample a few Italian dishes and
mosaic picture of this bull in Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II is a tradition for Italians
The Galerie Vivienne was constructed in 1823 by Marchoux, at the time president of the Chambre des Notaires; he acquired for this purpose no. 6 rue Vivienne, no. 4 rue des Petits Champs, and the Passage des Petits-Pères, which were all joined together in a single complex just behind the Bibliothèque Nationale
Inside the arcade
Entrance to the gallery
Seating space inside the arcade
Elegant spiral staircase in iron . One of the most aesthetically important element in the gallery
There are still quite a few interesting shops of designers, antiques and old postcards and Designer flooring has been created throughout
The gallery has number of entrance gate
The entrance on the side of rue des Petits Champs
The entrance to the arcade on the side of rue Vivienne
The above entrance in 1825
Circular patterns were used to design the floorings
Glass was used as a design element as well as for the entrance of light
This is the best-preserved of the famed 19th-century shopping arcades in Paris. The Neo-classic bas-reliefs and luxurious star patterns in the Italian mosaic floor are particularly impressive to modern eyes. The different varieties of stone have worn unevenly over the past 160 years. The floor’s creator, G. Facchina, cleverly tiled his name and Paris address into several thresholds around the Galerie in a decorative act of self-promotion. I often wonder if
Above his floor, the walls are decorated in a celebration of commerce, with carved cornucopia, anchors, wheat, and beehives; unlike many Paris arcades, which have fallen into shabbiness, here the paint is fresh and the glass roof is clean. Structurally, the arcades’ iron frames support panels of glass that allow light into the interior space, much like a greenhouse
Several of the roof panels even open to allow fresh air to circulate. Iron beams are really the first artificial construction material introduced into European building, which makes architecture of the 1820s and onwards consistently revolutionary. These passageways were especially radical at night, when they were illuminated by the very latest
The emergence of the technological developments in 19th century building systems, most importantly caste iron used for the superstructures, seemed as swift, startling and unrelenting as digital technology seems in the 21st century
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