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Learning in Retirement

David Coll

Professor Emeritus Department of Systems and Computer Engineering

Winter 2009

Digital means discrete (like whole numbers) and Analog means continuous (like physical properties such as temperature, volume, etc.). The term analog comes from early computers (circa WWII) used to solve differential equations with continuous variables, as contrasted with discrete state machines (like an elevator controller) built from openor-closed switches or on-off digital circuits

Definitions

Analog

(from whatis.com)

Using physical representation Relating to a system, device that represents data variation by a measurable physical quality such as temperature, volume, distance, weight, pressure Which is continuous in time or space and value

Definitions

Digital Representing data as numbers

Processing Operating on Storing Transmitting Displaying

such as sound, light, or electricity

by means of samples

taken at discrete times (or places) and given numerical values usually in the binary system as in a digital audio recording or in digital television or in digital photography

In Communications

Analog is used to refer to systems with signals that are continuous in value and time

such as AM and FM, where the electrical signals are representations of the information signals.

s (t ) Ac cos(2f c t k m(t )) s (t ) Ac cos(2f c t k f

m( )d )

0

In Communications

Digital is used to refer to discrete-state, discrete-time signals that can take on only specific values at specific times; such as

sampled/quantized signals, pulse modulated signals,

Analog (continuous functions of time, space, weight, )

voice, audio, image, video, temperature Bandwidth frequency (harmonics) range Statistics amplitude distribution, power, spectrum (frequency content, harmonics)

ASCII characters, computer words, Bit Rate bps, kbps, Mbps, Gbps, Tbps, Ebps,

Digital Representation

Information that is naturally discrete, such as state of a light switch (on-off), integers, or text can be represented by binary numbers in obvious ways. Text (as generated on a keyboard) is often represented by 8-bit binary numbers. Speech may be represented by a pressure wave, which is continuous in time and value and has to be sampled and quantized to be represented digitally.

Discrete Information

Some information, such as numerals and characters is discrete and can be represented digitally easily Take characters of the English Language for example The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is the binary representation used in teletype messaging and adopted as a universal computer character representation.

A = 11000001 a = 11100001

% = 10100101

Formatting 10001101 = CR 10001010 = LF Messaging 10000001 = SOH 10000010 = STX 10000011 = ETX 10000100 = EOT

Serendipity

Early minicomputers such as Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP machines used teletypewriters as terminals They had

keyboards that generated ASCII code words printers that accepted ASCIII code words and punched paper tape I/O that could be used to save and replay messages.

text formatting CR and LF and message formatting SOH, STX ETX, EOT

Became the way computer communications over leased and dial-up telephone lines started Except for a bunch of computer geeks who used Sun Microsystems workstations which had a different communications scheme built-in.

All continuous signals can be represented by a collection of numbers to any degree of accuracy by

sampling often enough and using enough quantization levels* to represent the signal value at the sampling instants. * determined by the number of digits in the representation

Analog-to-Digital Conversion

Two stage process Sample

Sampling Theorem Nyquist Rate

Quantize

Precision, SNR (% average error) Note: a digital representation of an analog value always has error

Shannons Sampling Theorem states that

any bandlimited signal may be represented by samples taken at a rate of twice its highest frequency*, and may be reconstructed without error if the appropriate interpolation functions are used**.

Nerd Alert

* Twice the highest frequency is called the Nyquist Rate. ** Physically unrealizable sinx/x or (sinc) functions.

Impulse Sampling

Reconstruction

Summary

All signals can be represented by a collection of numbers to any degree of accuracy by sampling often enough and using enough quantization levels to represent the signal value at the sampling instant.

Shannons Sampling Theorem states that any strictly bandlimited function may be presented by sampling at a rate that is at least twice as fast as the highest frequency in the signal, and that it may be recovered without distortion by passing the (impulse) samples through an ideal low-pass filter with a bandwidth equal to that of the signal.

Quantization

For processing, storage or communication, samples with infinite precision must be quantized Such that a range, or interval, of values is represented by a single, finite precision, number For example, by a finite binary number.

Quantization

7

6 5 5

3

2

3 1

2

1 -2

-2

-3

time

-3

-3 -4

Reconstitution

7 6 5 5 4 3 2 1 1 -2 -3 -3 -4 -2 -3 2 1 3 7 7 7 7

time

Quantum Boundary

ERROR

-3

-4

The quantization error depends on the number of distinct quantization intervals used. If N binary digits are used, the number of distinct intervals is 2N. The signal-to-quantization-error ratio is about (6N + 1.8) dB.

Binary Representation

Once information is discretized, or sampled, a number can be assigned to represent the value of each sample. The number can be expressed as a binary number, e.g., 2009 is 1024 + 512 + 256 + 128 +64 + 32 + 8 + 4 + 1

1x 210 + 1x 29 + 1x 28 + 1x 27 + 1x 26 +1x 25 +1x 23 + 1x 22 + 1x 20

11111101101

Summary

The basis of the Digital Deluge is the universal adoption of a technology that can create, process, and communicate information that is represented in digital form.

So much for Digital Representation Now, lets look at Digital Information Technologies But, first Let us pause for a short break .

Communications Computing

Digital Communications

We have

Sources of Information That create information Destinations for Information That use information

and we have

Communications Networks That provide connectivity between them

That interface (connect) the Sources and Destinations to the Networks.

A Taxonomy of Telecommunications

Sources Channels Destinations

Source

T e r m

T e r m

Dest

Channels

T e r m

Dest

Modern Telecommunication Systems are designed to accept and deliver information made up of sequences of binary signals. These systems and the connections through them are enabled and controlled by computers.

Realization of the Telecomm Dream

Unified Communications ubiquitous high speed, multimedia, reliable, standardized networks

The All-IP Multimedia Network The Internet and the WWW

More on Communications

We will discuss communications later when we look at delivering digital information.

Computers are universal digital machines that can

accept information in digital form store it process it in many ways output it to various devices display it communicate it

Intelligent Information Agents

Communications, Processing, Control Programmable Powerful Hardware: speed, memory Handheld/Mobile Robotic autonomous tasks in touch with local environment

Terminal Equipment the sources and destinations of information, are digital machines, i.e., computers, in the broadest sense. Network Switches are also computers.

Software Development

Highly evolutionary Use of complex components Standardization

Communications A & D I/O Processor

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