♦ A Database is a collection of related data. By data, we mean known facts that

can be recorded and that have implicit meaning.
♦ Properties: ♦ Represents some aspect of the real world. ♦ A logically coherent collection of data with some inherent meaning. ♦ Designed, built and populated with data for a specific purpose. ♦ A DBMS is a collection of programs that enables users to create and maintain

a database. It is a general purpose software system that facilitates the processes of defining, constructing and manipulating databases for various applications.

♦ Advantages of DBMS: ♦ Controlling Redundancy ♦ Restricting Unauthorized access ♦ Providing persistent storage for program objects and data structures. ♦ Permitting inferencing and actions using rules. ♦ Providing Multiple user interfaces ♦ Representing Complex relationships among data ♦ Enforcing Integrity constraints ♦ Back up and recovery ♦ Overhead of DBMS: ♦ High Initial investment ♦ Security, concurrency control, recovery, Integrity functions

♦ Data Model: ♦ A collection of concepts that can be used to describe the structure of a

database – provides the necessary means to achieve this abstraction. ♦ By structure of a database we mean the data types, relationships and constraints that should hold on the data.
♦ Relationship: ♦ Interaction among the entities. ♦ Description of a database is called the database schema.

♦ Specialization: ♦ Process of defining a set of subclasses of an entity type; this entity type is

called the superclass of the specialization.
♦ Generalization: ♦ Suppressing the differences among several entity types, identify their common

features and generalize them into a single superclass of which the original entity types are special subclasses.
♦ Sub class and super class relationship: ♦ IS – A – SUBCLASS – OF

♦ Aggregation: ♦ Abstraction concept for building composite objects from their component

♦ Relation between primitive and their aggregate object: ♦ IS – A – PART – OF ♦ Inverse (IS – A – COMPONENT – OF) ♦ Association: ♦ Associate objects from several independent classes.

♦ Entity Integrity constraint: ♦ States that No primary key value can be null. ♦ RIC: ♦ Specified between two relations and is used to maintain the consistency

among tuples of the two relations.
♦ Foreign key of R1 that references Relation R2(Rules) ♦ The attributes in FK have the same domain(s) as the primary key attributes PK

of R2. ♦ A value of FK in a tuple t1 of the current state r1(R1) either occurs as a value of PK for some tuple T2 in the current state r2(R2).

♦ Set Operations: ♦ UNION, INTERSECTION and SET DIFFERENCE. ♦ Cartesian Product of two relations S and R will have nR * nS tuples. ♦ JOIN OPERATION: ♦ 1) Theta Join(Null do not appear in the result. ♦ 2) Equi join(=) ♦ 3) Natural Join(basically an equi join followed by removal of the superfluous

♦ Division Operation: ♦ T1 π Y( R ) , T2π Y ((S * T1) - R), T T1-T2

 Triggers:  Active rule capability is provided by a database trigger – stored procedure that is implicitly executed or fired when the table with which it is associated has an insert, delete or update performed on it.  Functional Dependency:  Constraint between two sets of attributes from the database.  Between two sets of attributes X and Y that are subsets of R specifies a constraint on the possible tuples that can form a relation state r of R.  Normalization of Data:  Process of analyzing the given relation schemas based on their FDs and primary keys to achieve the desirable properties of  Minimizing redundancy.  Minimizing the insertion, deletion and update anomalies

♦ FIRST NORMAL FORM: ♦ States “The domain of an attribute must include only atomic(indivisible)

values and that the value of any attribute in a tuple must be a single value from the domain of that attribute”. ♦ Disallows “relations within relations” and multivalued attributes.
♦ Second Normal Form: ♦ Based on the concept of full functional dependency. ♦ A functional dependency X  Y is a full functional dependency if removal of

any attribute A from X means that the dependency does not hold any more.
♦ Third Normal Form: ♦ Based on the concept of Transitive dependency.

♦ Transitive Dependency, if there is a set of attributes Z that is neither a

candidate key nor a subset of any key of R and both X  Z and Z  Y hold.
♦ Codd’s Original defn., A relation schema R is in 3NF if it satisfies 2NF and no

nonprime attribute of R is transitively dependent on the primary key.
♦ Boyce – Codd Normal Form(BCNF): ♦ A relation schema is in BCNF if whenever a nontrivial functional dependency

X  A holds in R, then X is a superkey of R.
♦ Diff. Between BCNF and 3NF: ♦ Allows A to be prime, is absent from BCNF.