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EMC Analysis and Engineering

Mr. Wang Jian


Spectrum Engineering Division State Radio Monitoring Center wangjian@srrc.org.cn +86-10-6835 5711

National Spectrum Management

Monitoring

Law & Enforcement

Planning & allocating

Inspection

Spectrum Engineering

Licensing & Billing

Rules Regulations & associated standards

Frequency Coordinating
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EMC
ElectroMagnetic Compatibility Analysis
Analyzing the impact of introducing a new Radio Frequency assignment into an existing environment of Radio Frequencies.

TASK of EMC analysis

Newly assigned Freq

Potential Interference EXISTING SYSTEM EXISTING SYSTEM

The Questions:
1. Will new frequency assignment cause interference to existing stations ?
2. Will the new frequency receive interference from existing stations

Why we need EMC


Operators need clear spectrum All the system need co-exist peacefully Use Spectrum efficiently an effectively

Overview
Interference Model Culling Propagation Interference Analysis

What is interference
Unwanted energy Performance degradation, Misinterpretation, Loss of information Receiver

Interference
Permissible interference (RR1.167): Accepted interference(RR1.168) Harmful interference(RR1.167)
ITU ITU ITU ITU

RR RR RR RR

Interference Model
Co-Channel (Co-frequency) Interference
Adjacent Channel Interference Intermodulation Transmitter Noise Receiver Desensitization

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Co-Channel Interference
Interference falls on frequency within the receivers pass band Can only be eliminated at its source

CH1

CH2

CH3

CH4
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Frequency Reuse
Increase the efficiency of frequency usage

Co-channel Cell

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Frequency Reuse
Minimum distance separation to provide sufficient isolation between co-channel stations In cellular mobile systems, Co-channel reuse ratio Q= D/ R
where D:minimum distance separation

R: radius of cell

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What about CDMA


Same frequency,but different code Spread Spectrum exchange for better performance Self-interference system

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What about CDMA


Interference effect: Capacity Loss Coverage Loss

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Adjacent Channel Interference


In-band energy from adjacent Channel

CH1

CH2

CH3

CH4
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Transmitter Noise

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Receiver Desensitization

Signal from strong nearby transmitter within RF passband of the Proposed Receiver

Proposed Receiver RF Pass Band

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Receiver Desensitization
Automatic Gain Control (AGC) :
Undesired Signal Gain

Undesired signal force receiver to reduce its sensitivity When Gain 0, receiver was blocked

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How to eliminate Desensitization Interference


Horizontal or vertical separation of antenna Improve the selectivity of the receiver: -- insert band pass filter Select another frequency

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How to eliminate transmitter noise


Install a band-pass filter at the transmitter output Increase geographical separation Selecting another frequency

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Intermodulation (IM) Analysis


Where does it come from?

For Transmitter IM
2 or more transmitters stand nearby and intermodulated Final output amplifier turns non-linearity

New frequencies radiate out

For Receiver IM
Strong RF Signals nearby Victim receiver being saturated IM product falls in to a transmitters pass band

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Intermodulation
Interferers

Desired Channel

f1 f2

2f1-f2 f1 f2 2f2-f1

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Intermodulation interference
Receiver Intermodulation
Transmitter B

Proposed Receiver
Transmitter C
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Intermodulation interference
Transmitter Intermodulation
Transmitter B

Transmitter A

Proposed Receiver

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Intermodulation Mathematics

Intermodulation
Second Order Third Order

Formula
Fa Fb 2Fa Fb, Fa 2Fb |Fa Fb Fc|

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EXAMPLE
Third Order IM Example 1 F1=154.350MHz F2=143.875MHz Fim= 2F1-F2= 2*154.350-143.875=164.825 MHz Example 2 F1=154.625MHz F2=279.2875MHz F3=279.2125MHz Fim= F1-F2+F3 =154.625+279.2875-279.2125=154.7MHz
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Table 5, Receiver Intermodulation Determination of Intermodulation Products


IM Product Im Product 1 Im Product 2 Fa 165.240 165.240 Fb 165.150 163.500 2Fa-Fb 165.330 166.980 2Fb-Fa 165.100 161.760

Im Product 3
Im Product 4 Im Product 5 Im Product 6 Im Product 7 Im Product 8 Im Product 9 Im Product 10

165.240
165.240 165.150 165.150 165.150 163.500 163.500 165.330

165.330
164.370 163.500 165.330 164.370 165.330 164.370 164.370

165.150
166.110 166.800 164.970 165.930 165.670 162.630 166.290

165.420
163.500 161.850 165.510 163.590 167.160 165.240 163.41
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IM make EMC more Complicated


Newly assigned Freq

EXISTING SYSTEM

EXISTING SYSTEM

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Interference Model Summary


Co-Channel Interference
Adjacent Channel Interference Intermodulation

Transmitter Noise
Receiver Desensitization

What is? How and when it occurs?

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Content
Interference Model Culling Propagation Interference Analysis

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Why perform a cull


In a frequency congested environment, the Spectrum Manager must use a valid and reliable means to identify potential interference problems which can occur between thousands of assigned frequencies in the area.

Which assignments need detailed analysis?


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Culling

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How to cull
Frequency criteria (frequency separation) Distance between interfering transmitter and victim receiver Local environment consideration

An accurate,comprehensive DATABASE is necessary

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After considering distance separation


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F-D rule
d

For different interference type,


Different F-D rule shall apply

f
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Culling example
In land mobile service:
CHANNEL DISTANCE FROM THE PROPOSED MINIMUM CULL DISTANCE (Km) MAXIMUM CULL DISTANCE (Km)

CO-CHANNEL ADJECENT

120 30

240 60

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Distance separation between Radionavigation & FM Stations


Frequency of BC stations(MHz)
dBW KW

100

102

104

105

106

107

107.9

Distance (Km)

55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15

300 100 30 10 3 1 0.300 0.100 0.030

125 75 40 25 20 20 20 20 20

210 120 65 40 2020 20 20 20 20

400 230 125 70 40 25 20 20 20

500 340 190 105 60 35 20 20 20

500 500 310 180 95 55 30 20 20

500 500 500 380 210 120 65 40 20

500 500 500 500 500 370 200 115 65

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Culling example
Earth station coordination area
Stations using the same frequency band within the coordiation area are likely to receive interference from the earth station or to cause interference to the earth station

B
Receiving earth station

EARTH STATION

Coordination area

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Earth station coordination area

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Question :

How to cull for very large area?

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Solution for Large Culling area Typical Radio Stations Test Points

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Content
Interference Model Culling Propagation Interference Analysis

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Electromagnetic Wave
Changing Electric field Changing Magnetic field Changing Electric field Velocity C=300,000,000 m/s in free space

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Frequency band and usage


Band VLF LF MF HF VHF Frequency 3 - 30 kHz 30 - 300 kHz 0.3 - 3 MHz 3 - 30 MHz 30 - 300 MHz Propagate Range several 1000 km several 1000 km a few 1000 km up to several 1000 km up to a few 100 km Usage long range Radio navigation and strategic communications Long range radio navigation and strategic communications Medium range pt. to pt. broadcasting &maritime mobile

Long and short range pt. to pt., global broadcasting, mobile.


Short and medium ptp, mobile, LAN, audio & video broadcasting, personal communications

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Continue
UHF 0.3 - 3 GHz Generally less than 100 km

Short ,medium and long ptp, mobile, LAN, audio and video broadcasting, personal communications, satellite communications

SHF

3 - 30 GHz

Medium to short range ptp, 30 km; audio ,video broadcasting, LAN, several 1000 km for mobile/personal communications, multihop and satellite satellite communications 20 km; Short range ptp, microcellular, LAN several 1000 km for and personal communications, multihop and satellite satellite communications

EHF

30 - 300 GHz

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Propagation
Transmitter Power: P0
Radius of the sphere: R
Power density on the sphere:

PD P0 / 4 R 2
R

PR PD Aeff
Receivers antenna effective area : Aeff

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Propagation mechanisms

Line-of -sight
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Propagation mechanisms

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Propagation mechanisms

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Propagation mechanisms

Sky-wave

Below 30MHz, Ionosphere propagation dominate


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Path Loss
Issue: power or field strength at the receiver
Transmitter B

RF Channel

Transmitter A

Receiver A

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The requirement for spectrum manager

Analyze Propagation mechanisms Make right choice Calculate the BASIC path loss

You can NOT expected to predict the path loss accurately !

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Free space Path Loss


Loss = 32.44+ 20 log d (km) +20logF(MHz) dB

Line-of-sight transmission Simple the most optimistic

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Question
EIRP: 10dBw

Transmitter Carriers frequency: 250MHz


Transmitting distance: 20 kilometers QUESTION: Calculate the Power at receiver antenna

Transmitter A

Receiver A
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Answer
Loss = 32.44+ 20logd(km) +20logF(MHz)

= 32.44+ 20log20+20log250=104 (dB)


Power at receiver antenna= 10- 104 = -94 (dBw)

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In Land Mobile Service


OKUMURA-HATA Egli model ITU-R Recommendation P.1546

Formulas and curves are based on statistical Analysis of experimental data

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OKUMURA-HATA model Loss


L= 69.5526.16lgf13.82lghte(hre)44.96.55lghblgd Where: f: frequency (150MHz1500MHz)

hte=equivalent height of transmitters antenna (30-200m)


hre= equivalent height of receivers antenna (1-10m) d=distance between antennas of transmitter & receiver(<20km) a (hre) =factor of antenna modification and typical value is: a (hre) =(1.1 log f 0.7) hre (1.56 log f 0.8)

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Egli model loss


Lp=88.1+40lgd+20lgf-20lg(h1h2) Lp=88.1+40lgd+20lgf-20lgh1-10lgh2 h2>10m h2<=10m

Where f frequency (MHz) h1equivalent height of transmitter antenna (m) h2equivalent height of receiver antenna (m) d distance between antennas (km)
Egli Model is less accurate,but it is simple.
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LVF
Location variability factor (LVF) (take into account effects on propagation from terrain and local ground: Buildings, terrain feature,foliage) No absolute value Local Knowledge is very important

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ITU-R Recommendations

See document ITU-R Recommendation P.1144

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Content
Interference Model Culling Propagation

Interference Analysis

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Basic Concept

Wanted Transmitter

Receiver A

Interfering transmitter

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Interference Analysis
Compare C/I or S/I with criteria or standards---->Margin If Margin is enough, favorable finding Or un favorable finding

For digital system, criteria or standards derive from expected BER


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Other Standards and Criteria


I/N for frequency sharing and coordination, e.g. I/N<-6dB, I/N<-10dB Absolute value for the protection of passive services (e.g. Radio Astronomy)

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Interference Analysis
S = EIRPS PL+ GRX +LRX +LVF
Where:
EIRPS : EIRP of the interfering transmitter (dBw) PL: path loss (dB) GRX: gain of the receive station antenna gain (dBi)

(dBw)

LRX : total loss of receiver (filter,cable) (dB)


LVF: Location variability factor (dB)

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Interference Analysis
I = EIRPI PL+ GRX +LRX-OCR+LVF (dBw)
Where: EIRPI : EIRP of the interfering transmitter (dBw) PL: path loss (dB) GRX: gain of the receive station antenna gain (dBi)

LRX : total loss of receiver (filter,cable) (dB)


OCR: off-channel rejection(dB)

LVF: Location variability factor (dB)

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OCR
Off-Channel rejection (OCR) is determined by a formula based on the frequency difference between the victim or no-channel and the potentially interfering or off-channel frequency.

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Exercise
Co-channel interference Desensitization/transmitter noise Receiver Intermodulation

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Summary
Interference Model

Culling
Propagation

Interference Analysis

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Technology used in sharing


Frequency separation (FDMA) Spatial separation Time separation (TDMA) CDMA

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System Evaluation

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Content of Application
Applicant information Location of station Technical characteristics of proposed equipment and accessories

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Technical characteristics
Frequency(ies) Transmitter power Receiver sensitivity Antenna: location,gain,structure,gain,azimuth,height, Ancillary device : loss

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Application information
Become parts of spectrum management database Some will appear on the license

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Purpose of Evaluation
Evaluate application submitted for authorizing a radio communication station or system Ensure requested system performance (e.g. coverage area) is practical Ensure proposed technical parameters are not in excess of those required to perform the requested communication service.

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Case Study in Land Mobile Service


Two way communication:
Base station to Mobile Mobile to Base station

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Frequency Configurations
Simplex:

Two frequency Simplex:

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Frequency Configurations
Two-Frequency Duplex

Transmit and receive simultaneously


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System Coverage Area


Meet the coverage requirements of the Applicant and economically designed Meet the objectives and policies of the Spectrum Management Authority:
No interference,permit frequency reuse

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Coverage Balance
Excess system coverage

BS
Max Mobile talk back range

Coverage area based on EIRP of BS

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Potential Interference

Interference Zone Range of coverage due to excessive power

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Conclusion
Maximum distance that a mobile station can hear the systems base station shall be balanced with the distance that the base station can reliably hear the mobile station.
How to determine what EIRP is necessary ?
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Calculate Required EIRP


Required information: Transmitter frequency (MHz) Effective height of transmitter and receiver antenna(m) Gain of transmitter and receiver antenna(dBd) Required coverage area (Km) Required minimum signal level (dBw) Location Variability Factor (LVF) (dB)

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Calculate Required EIRP


EIRP=PL-G+Pmin+LVF (dBw) Where:
PL:Path loss in dB G: Gain of receive antenna (dBi) Pmin: Required Signal level (dBw) LVF: local variability factor (dB)

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Exercise:EIRP=?
Parameter
Transmitter Effective height Receiver Effective height

Value
15m 2m

Frequency Required Coverage (radius) Receiver Antenna Gain Receiver System Loss LVF Required Signal level PminPropagation Model

150MHz 50Km 0 dBi 0 dB 4dB -137dBw (0.65V) Egli


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Answer
Calculate the path loss (PL) :
PL=78.1+40logd+20logf-20logh1-10logh2

PL=78.1+40log(50)+20log(150)-20log(15)-10log(2)
= 78.1+68.0 + 43.5 23.5-3.0 = 163.1 (dB) EIRP=163.1- 0 -137.1+ 4 = 30 (dBw)
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Mobile Talk-back Distance


Use Egli Model: d=10exp((EIRP+Gb-TL- Pmin-LVF-88.1-20Logf+20Logh1h2)/40) Where: d:Distance which mobile can talk back to base station (km) h1,h2: Antenna height of mobile and base station (m) f: Mobile station transmitting frequency (MHz) EIRP: EIRP of mobile station (dBw) Gb: Base station receiving antenna gain(dBi) Pmin: Minimum required Signal level at base station receiver(dBw) LVF: local variability factor (dB) TL: base station receiver total losses (dB)

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Demonstration of EMC software

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The End

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