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Data plays an important role in day to day life. If data is too large, it can be represented in a precise form in a number of ways. Once data is represented in precise form, the user has to understand it properly. The process of interpreting the data from its precise form is called data interpretation.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Data Tables Pie Charts Two variable graphs Bar Graphs Combination of two or more charts

Data Table

Here the entire data is represented in the form of a Table. Data can be represented in the form of a Table or in combination of Tables. To understand it better, look at the following example. (Population of different cities in 000s)

year

Paris

Delhi

Rome

London

Lahore

2002

2003 2004

2000

2400 3000

4000

4800 5500

3700

4300 5150

1650

1760 2325

3850

4160 4750

2005

2006 2007 2008

3500

3750 4500 8000

6450

7210 7800 9560

6070

6910 7430 8150

2810

3020 4010 6000

4800

5110 6500 8050

From the given table, we can find the following: 1 Population of any particular city with respect to that of any other city for a given year. Example: The population of Paris is what percentage more than the population of London in 2008? 1. 2. 3. 4. 20% 25% 33.33% 50% Paris 2000 2400 3000 3500 3750 4500 8000 Delhi 4000 4800 5500 6450 7210 7800 9560 Rome 3700 4300 5150 6070 6910 7430 8150 London 1650 1760 2325 2810 3020 4010 6000 Lahore 3850 4160 4750 4800 5110 6500 8050

The percentage of population of Paris more than the population of London in 2008 =

(8000-6000)/(6000) 100 =(2000/6000) 100 =200/6

=33.33%

Percentage change in the population of any city from one year to another. Example: what in the percentage increase in the population of Delhi from 2002 to 2004? 1. 16.66% 2. 20% 3. 25% 4. 37.5%

year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Paris 2000 2400 3000 3500 3750 4500 8000 Delhi 4000 4800 5500 6450 7210 7800 9560 Rome 3700 4300 5150 6070 6910 7430 8150 London 1650 1760 2325 2810 3020 4010 6000 Lahore 3850 4160 4750 4800 5110 6500 8050

The percentage increase in the population of Delhi from 2002 to 2004 = ((5500 4000)/4000 ) 100%

=(1500/4000) 100% =37.5%

3.

The rate of growth of population of any city in any given year over the previous year. Example: BY what percentage increase, the population of Paris in 2005 is more than that of previous year. 1. 16.66% 2. 20% 3. 25% 4. 30%

year

2002 2003 2004

Paris

2000 2400 3000

Delhi

4000 4800 5500

Rome

3700 4300 5150

London

1650 1760 2325

Lahore

3850 4160 4750

2005

2006 2007 2008

3500

3750 4500 8000

6450

7210 7800 9560

6070

6910 7430 8150

2810

3020 4010 6000

4800

5110 6500 8050

percentage increase of the population of Paris in 2005 than that of previous year= ((3500-3000)/3000 ) 100%

=(500/3000) 100% =16.66%

4.

The city which has maximum percentage population growth in the given period. Example: Which of the following cities has seen the maximum population growth rate in the given period (2002 2008) ? 1. London 2. Rome 3. Paris 4. Delhi year 2002 2003 2004 Paris 2000 2400 3000 Delhi 4000 4800 5500 Rome 3700 4300 5150 London 1650 1760 2325 Lahore 3850 4160 4750

2005

2006 2007 2008

3500

3750 4500 8000 ||

6450

7210 7800 9560 ||

6070

6910 7430 8150 ||

2810

3020 4010 6000 ||

4800

5110 6500 8050

The cities has the maximum population growth rate in the given period (2002 2008)=

For Paris = (8000-2000)/(2000)100 =6000 100/2000

= 300

=5560 100 /4000 = 139 |||ly for Rome 120, London 264.

5. For a given city, finding out the year in which the percentage increase in the population was higher for a given city. Example : In which of the following years, the population of Lahore has increased the maximum percentage over the previous year? 1.2004 2.2006 3.2007 4.2008 year Paris Delhi Rome London Lahore

2002

2003 2004 2005

2000

2400 3000 3500

4000

4800 5500 6450

3700

4300 5150 6070

1650

1760 2325 2810

3850

4160 4750 4800

2006

2007 2008

3750

4500 8000

7210

7800 9560

6910

7430 8150

3020

4010 6000

5110

6500 8050

2007 is the maximum

6. Rate of Growth of the population of all the cities together in any given year over the previous year. Example : Considering the population of all the given cities together, in which year, the growth rate is maximum over the previous year? 1.2003 2.2005 3.2007 4.2008 year Paris Delhi Rome London Lahore

2002

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

2000

2400 3000 3500 3750 4500 8000

4000

4800 5500 6450 7210 7800 9560

3700

4300 5150 6070 6910 7430 8150

1650

1760 2325 2810 3020 4010 6000

3850

4160 4750 4800 5110 6500 8050

=23630

=26000 =30240 =39760

the population of all the given cities together, in which year, the growth rate is maximum over the previous year =

(Part. year Prev. year)/(Prev.year)100 For example in the year 2008,this would be, 9520100/30240 =32 Approximate 32% growth rate in the year 2008.

Pie Diagram

In this, the total quantity is distributed over one complete circle. This circle is made into various parts for various elements. Each part represents share of the corresponding element as portion of the total quantity. These parts can be represented in terms of percentage or in terms of angle. Look at the following Pie-chart representing crude oil transported through different modes over a specific period of time.

Road 20%

Rail 20%

Ship 10%

Pipeline 50%

Road 72

Rail 72

Ship 36

Pipeline 180

1.

We can find the following from the above pie chart. The oil that has been transported through any mode if the total transported amount is known.

Example: If the total oil transported in the given period through all the modes together is 7,20,000 gallons. How much oil has been transported by rail?

1.36,000 gallons 2.72,000 gallons 3.1,44,000 gallons 4.1,80,000 gallons

oil has been transported by rail = 20% of 7,20,000 =20/100 7,20,000 =1,44,000

2 The proportion of oil transported through any mode with respect to any other mode.

Example: By what percentage, the oil transported by pipeline is more than the oil transported by road? 1.50% 2.100% 3.150% 4.cannot be determined

The percentage of the oil transported by pipeline is more than the oil transported by road = By Pipeline =50 % of 7,20,000=3,60,000 By road =20% of 7,20,000=1,44,000

Percent increase =( 3,60,000/1,44,000)100

=150%

3. The total oil transported, if the oil transported through any particular mode is known.

Example: If 12,000 gallons of oil was transported by ship in the given period, what is the total amount of oil that has been transported in that period?

1.36,000 gallons 2.1,20,000 gallons 3.1,80,000 gallons 4.cannot say

the total amount of oil that has been transported in that period=

Here the data will be represented in the form of a graph. Generally it represents the change of one variable with respect to the other. Look at the following graph: Car sales in India in different years (in 000s)

200 150 100 50 0 2003 2004 Maruti 2005 Hyundai Others 2006

From the given graph, we can calculate 1. The percentage change in the sales of any brand from one year to another. EXAMPLE: What is the percentage increase in Maruti sales from 2004 to 2006? (1) 50% (2) 75% (3) 100% (4) 125%

200 150 100 50 0 2003 2004 Maruti 2005 Hyundai Others 2006

From the graph Maruthi sales in the year 2004 =1,00,000 In the year 2006 =1,75,000

Percentage increase =(1,75,000-1,00,000)/1,00,000 100 =75,000/1000 =75%

From the given graph, we can calculate 2. Rate of growth of total car sales (all the brands) in a given period. EXAMPLE: What is the approximate percentage change in the sales of all the given brands together from 2003 to 2006? (1) 100%

200 150 100 50 0 2003 2004 Maruti 2005 Hyundai Others 2006

(2) 120%

(3) 160% (4) 200%

In 2003, all the car sales together= 30,000+50,000+60,000=1,40,000 In 2006, all the car sales together= 90,000+100,000+175,000 =3,65,000 Percentage change = (3,65,000-1,40,000)/(1,40,000) 100 =2,25,000/1400 =160 approximately

3. The proportion of the sales of any brand with respect to the sales of any other brand in the given year.

EXAMPLE: In 2006, the sales of Hyundai is approximately what percentage less than the sales of Maruti? (1) 25% (2) 42.9% (3) 60% (4) 75%

200 150 100 50 0 2003 2004 Maruti 2005 Hyundai Others 2006

In 2006, the sales of Hyundai is approximately what percentage less than the sales of Maruti? Ans: (Sales of Maruthi Sales of Hyundai)/(Sales of Maruthi)100 =((1,75,000-1,00,000)/(1,00,000))100 =(75,000/1,75,000) 100 =42.9% app.

4. For a given brand, the year in which the sales increased by maximum percentage over the previous year.

EXAMPLE: In which year the sales of Maruti increased by maximum percentage over the previous year? (1) 2004 (2) 2005 (3) 2006 (4) All are same

200 150 100 50 0 2003 2004 Maruti 2005 Hyundai Others 2006

In 2003-2004,increase rate 1,00,000-50,000/50,000100 =50,000/500=100 In 2005 2006,increase rate 175,000-125,000/125,000 100 =50,000/1250=40

5. In a given year the brand which has noted the maximum growth rate in the sales over the previous year. EXAMPLE:

For which brand, the growth 200 rate in the sales is maximum 150 from 2005 to 2006? (1) Maruti (2) Hyundai (3) Others (4) Both Maruti and Hyundai

100 50 0 2003 2004 Maruti 2005 Hyundai Others 2006

BAR CHARTS

Bar-chart is also one of the ways to represent data. The data given in the above graph can also be represented in the form of a bar-chart as shown below.

200 150 100 100 50 50 0 2003 2004 Maruti Huyndai 2005 Others 2006 30 60 50 60 125 80 100 100 90 175

Here also we can deduce all the parameters as we could do in the case of a two-variable graph.

1. Percentage change in the sales of any brand from one year to an other.

EXAMPLE: What is the percentage increase in the sales of Maruti from 2004 to 2006? (1) 50% (2) 75% (3) 100% (4) 125%

Maruti Huyndai Others 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 200 150 100 100 50 50 30 60 50 60 125 80 100 100 90 175

the percentage increase in the sales of Maruti from 2004 to 2006 =((175-100)/100)100 =75%

2. Rate of growth of total sales of the cars (all the brands) in a given period.

EXAMPLE: What is the approximate percentage change in the sales of all the given brands together from 2003 to 2006? (1) 100%

200 150 100 100 50 50 0 2003 2004 Maruti Huyndai 2005 Others 2006 30 60 50 60 125 80 100 100 90 175

(2) 120%

(3) 160% (4) 200%

The sales of all the given brands together in 2003 = 50,000+60,000+30,000=140,000 The sales of all the given brands together in 2006 = 175,000+100,000+90,000=3,65,000 The approximate percentage change in The sales of all the given brands together from 2003 to 2006= (3,65,000-1,40,000/1,40,000)100 =160%

3. Proportion of the sales of any brand with respect to those of any other brand in the given year.

EXAMPLE: In 2006, the sales of Hyundai is approximately what percentage less than the sales of Maruti? (1) 25% (2) 42.9% (3) 60% (4) 75%

Maruti Huyndai Others 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 200 150 100 100 50 50 30 60 50 60 125 80 100 100 90 175

In 2006, the sales of Hyundai is approximately what percentage less than the sales of Maruti? Ans: (Sales of Maruthi Sales of Hyundai)/(Sales of Maruthi)100 =((1,75,000-1,00,000)/(1,00,000))100 =(75,000/1,75,000) 100 =42.9% app.

4. For a given brand, the year in which the sales increased by a maximum percentage over the previous year.

EXAMPLE: In which year the sales of Maruti increased by a maximum percentage over the previous year? (1) 2004 (2) 2005 (3) 2006 (4) All are same

0 2003 2004 Maruti Huyndai 2005 Others 2006 200 150 100 100 50 50 30 60 50 60 125 80 100 100 90 175

In 2003-2004,increase rate 1,00,000-50,000/50,000100 =50,000/500=100 In 2005 2006,increase rate 175,000-125,000/125,000 100 =50,000/1250=40

5. In a given year the brand which has noted the maximum growth rate in the sales over the previous years. EXAMPLE: For which brand the growth rate in the sales is maximum from 2005 to 2006? (1) Maruti (2) Hyundai

200 150 100 100 50 50 0 2003 2004 Maruti Huyndai 2005 Others 2006 30 60 50 60 125 80 100 100 90 175

(3) Others

(4) Both Maruti and Hyundai

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