How to differentiate exponential function

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How to differentiate exponential function

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By Dr. Julia Arnold and Ms. Karen Overman using Tans 5th edition Applied Calculus for the managerial , life, and social sciences text

Lets consider the derivative of the exponential function. Going back to our limit definition of the derivative:

d f ( x + h) f ( x) [ f ( x ) ] = lim h 0 dx h

d x e x +h e x e = lim h 0 dx h

First rewrite the exponential using exponent rules.

( )

x.

x

h e 1 = e x lim h 0 h

happens as x gets close to 0. We can also create a table of values close to either side of 0 and see what number we are closing in on. Graph Table x -.1 -.01 -.001 y .95 .995 .999 .001 .01 .1 1.0005 1.005 1.05

At x = 0, f(0) appears to be 1.

As x approaches 0, y approaches 1.

e h 1 We can safely say that from the last slide that lim =1 h 0 h

e h 1 d x x e = e lim = e x 1 = e x Thus h 0 dx h

( )

d x e = ex dx

The derivative of the exponential function is the exponential function.

( )

Solution: Do you remember the product rule? You will need it here.

Product Rule: (1st)(derivative of 2nd) + (2nd)(derivative of 1st) Factor out the common factor xex.

f(x) = x 2 e x f (x) = x 2 e x + e x 2x

f (x) = xe x ( x + 2 )

t

3 2

Chain Rule: (derivative of the outside)(derivative of the inside)

f(t) = e + 2

t

1 3 t f(t) = e + 2 2 e t 2

3 2

ex x

2

To find the solution you should use the quotient rule. Choose from the expressions below which is the correct use of the quotient rule.

ex f ' (x) = 2x

f ' (x) = x 2 e x e x ( 2x ) x4

f ' (x) =

e x ( 2x ) x 2 e x x4

(bottom)(derivative of top) (top)(derivative of bottom) (bottom)

x 2 e x e x ( 2x ) x

4

f ' (x) =

x 2 e x 2xe x x

4

xe x ( x 2 ) x4

f ' (x) =

e x ( x 2) x3

What if the exponent on e is a function of x and not just x? Rule 2: If f(x) is a differentiable function then

d f( x ) e = e f( x ) f(x) dx

In words: the derivative of e to the f(x) is an exact copy of e to the f(x) times the derivative of f(x).

Solution: We will have to use Rule 2. The exponent, 3x is a function of x whose derivative is 3.

f(x) = e 3x f(x) = e 3x 3

Solution:

2 x2 +1

f(x) = e

2x 2 +1 2x 2 +1

f (x) = e

( 4x )

Again, we used Rule 2. So the derivative is the exponential function times the derivative of the exponent.

Or rewritten:

f (x) = 4xe

2x 2 +1

Solution: Using the quotient rule

(e f (t) =

+ e t e t e t e t e t

(e

+e

t 2

( )

( ) ' s.

Recall that e0 = 1.

e 2t + e 0 e 2t + e 0

(e

+e 2

t 2

f (t) =

(e

+e

t 2

f ( x) = e

5x

f ' (x) =

5e

5x

2 5x

f ' ( x) = e

5x

5x

No, the other answer was correct. Remember when you are doing the derivative of e raised to the power f(x) the solution is e raised to the same power times the derivative of the exponent. What is the derivative of

5x ?

5x

5x

5x

d 5x dx -1 1 ( 5x ) 2 ( 5) 2 5 2 5x

5e

5x

2 5x

Example 6: A quantity growing according to the law Q(t) = Q0 e kt where Q0 and k are positive constants and t

belongs to the interval [ 0, ) experiences exponential growth. Show that the rate of growth Q(t) is directly proportional to the amount of the quantity present. Solution:

Remember: To say Q(t) is directly proportional to Q(t) means that for some constant k, Q(t) = kQ(t) which was easy to show.

x2

f(x) = e x

2

f(x) = 2xe

x2

f(x) = ( 2x ) e x ( 2x ) + e x ( 2)

2 2 2 2

First derivative

Exponentials never equal 0. 2x2 = 1 Set the other factor = 0. 1 Solve by square root of both sides. x2 = 2 1 2 x= = 2 2

2e 0

x2

To show that they are inflection points we put them on a number line and do a test with the 2nd derivative: f(x) = e x +

2 .7 2

2 .7 2

f(x) = 4x2e x 2e x

Intervals

, 2 2 2 2 2 , 2 2 2 ,

Test Points -1 0 1

f(0)=0-2=-2 = -

f(1)= 4e-1-2e-1=2e-1=+ Since there is a sign change across the potential inflection points,

1 2 2 , e 2

and

1 2 2 , e 2

In this lesson you learned two new rules of differentiation and used rules you have previously learned to find derivatives of exponential functions. The two rules you learned are: Rule 1: Derivative of the Exponential Function

d x e = ex dx

Rule 2: If f(x) is a differentiable function then

( )

)

d f( x ) e = e f( x ) f(x) dx

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