# Phase Diagrams

Chapter 10

Chapter 10 (part 1)
• • • • • • • • • • Introduction Solubility Limits Phases Phase Equilibrium Interpretation of Phase Diagrams Binary Isomorphous Systems (Cu-Ni) Development of Microstructure Mechanical Properties Binary Eutectic Systems Development of Eutectic Alloy Microstructure

Components and Phases
• Components:
The elements or compounds that are mixed initially (Al and Cu).

• Phases:
A phase is a homogenous, physically distinct and mechanically separable portion of the material with a given chemical composition and structure (a and b).
AluminumCopper Alloy

3

liquid. syrup) Solubility Limit Maximum concentration for which only a single phase solution exists. At 20°C. if C > 65 wt% sugar: syrup + sugar C = Composition (wt% sugar) . or gas solutions. L (liquid) + S (solid sugar) Question: What is the solubility limit for sugar in water at 20°C? Water Sugar Answer: 65 wt% sugar.e. if C < 65 wt% sugar: syrup 0 20 40 6065 80 100 At 20°C..Phase Equilibria: Solubility Limit • Solution – solid. single phase • Mixture – more than one phase • Solubility Limit: Sugar/Water Phase Diagram 10 0 Temperature (°C) 80 60 40 20 L (liquid solution i.

given a specified combination of temperature.Equilibrium • A system is at equilibrium if its free energy is at a minimum. • A change in T. P or C for the system will result in an increase in the free energy and possible changes to another state whereby the free energy is lowered. 5 . pressure and composition. • The (macroscopic) characteristics of the system do not change with time — the system is stable.

One Component Phase Diagram 6 .

independent variables: T and C (P = 1 atm is almost always used). Comp and Pressure. • Focus on: . .Phase Diagrams • Indicate phases as a function of Temp.binary systems: 2 components. T(°C) 1600 1500 L (liquid) • 2 phases: L (liquid) a (FCC solid solution) 1400 Cu-Ni system 1300 1200 1100 1000 0 20 a (FCC solid solution) 40 60 80 • 3 different phase fields: L L+a a 100 wt% Ni 7 .

T(°C) 1600 1500 1400 L (liquid) B D Cu-Ni system 1300 1200 1100 1000 Cu 0 20 A 40 a (FCC solid solution) 60 80 100 wt% Ni 8 .Effect of Temperature & Composition (Co) • Changing T can change # of phases: path A to B. • Changing Co can change # of phases: path B to D.

Determination of phase(s) present • Rule 1: If we know T and Co. Liquidus . solidification 9 begins. . Above this line. liquefaction begins. • Examples: Cu-Ni phase diagram Melting points: Cu = 1085°C. then we know: --how many phases and which phases are present. Below this line.Temperature where alloy is completely solid.Temperature where alloy is completely liquid. Ni = 1453 °C Solidus .

Phase Diagrams: composition of phases • Rule 2: If we know T and Co. then we know: --the composition of each phase. Cu-Ni system • Examples: At TA = 1320°C: Only Liquid (L) present CL = C0 ( = 35 wt% Ni) At TD = 1190°C: Only Solid (a) present Ca = C0 ( = 35 wt% Ni) At TB = 1250°C: Both a and L present CL = C liquidus ( = 32 wt% Ni) Ca = C solidus ( = 43 wt% Ni) 10 .

then we know: --the amount of each phase (given in wt%). • Examples: Cu-Ni system S S  WL   WL R S R S R R  Wa   Wa R S R S  43  35  73wt % 43  32 = 27wt % 11 .Phase Diagrams: weight fractions of phases • Rule 3: If we know T and Co.

A 35 Cu-Ni system 46 43 L: 32 wt% Ni a: 43 wt% Ni L: 24 wt% Ni a: 36 wt% Ni • Consider microstuctural changes that accompany the cooling of a B C D E a (solid) 36 C0 = 35 wt% Ni alloy 110 0 20 30 35 C0 40 50 wt% Ni 12 .Ex: Equilibrium Cooling of a Cu-Ni Alloy • Phase diagram: T(°C) L (liquid) 130 0 L: 35 wt% Ni a: 46 wt% Ni 32 24 120 0 L: 35wt%Ni Cu-Ni system.

• Weaker grain boundaries if alloy is reheated.• Development of microstructure during the non-equilibrium solidification of a 35 wt% Ni-65 wt% Cu alloy outcome: • Segregationnonuniform distribution of elements within grains. .

During the process. • Fast rate of cooling: Cored structure Last a to solidify has Ca = 35wt%Ni. atomic diffusion produces grains that are compositionally homogeneous.Cored vs Equilibrium Phases • Ca changes as it solidifies. • Cu-Ni case: First a to solidify has Ca = 46wt%Ni. • Slow rate of cooling: Equilibrium structure • Coring can be eliminated by means of a homogenization heat treatment carried out at temperatures below the alloy’s solidus. .

%AR) --Peak as a function of Co --Min.Mechanical Properties: Cu-Ni System • Effect of solid solution strengthening on: --Tensile strength (TS) --Ductility (%EL. as a function of Co 15 .

• The complete solubility is explained by their FCC structure. and similar valences. nearly identical atomic radii and electro-negativities. • The Cu-Ni system is termed isomorphous because of this complete liquid and solid solubility of the 2 components. 16 . Cu and Ni are mutually soluble in each other in the solid state for all compositions.Binary Isomorphous Systems Cu-Ni system: • The liquid L is a homogeneous liquid solution composed of Cu and Ni. • The α phase is a substitutional solid solution consisting of Cu and Ni atoms with an FCC crystal structure. • At temperatures below 1080 C.

17 .

.9 1.g. 18 .Criteria for Solid Solubility Simple system (e. Ni-Cu solution) Crystal Structure electroneg r (nm) Ni Cu FCC FCC 1. • Ni and Cu are totally soluble in one another for all proportions.8 0.1246 0.1278 • Both have the same crystal structure (FCC) and have similar electronegativities and atomic radii (W. Hume – Rothery rules) suggesting high mutual solubility.

binary 2 components: Cu and Ni.e.. • System is: T(°C) 1600 1500 1400 L (liquid) -.Isomorphous Binary Phase Diagram • Phase diagram: Cu-Ni system. a phase field extends from 0 to 100 wt% Ni.isomorphous i. 1300 1200 1100 1000 0 20 a (FCC solid solution) 40 60 80 100 wt% Ni 19 . complete solubility of one component in another. Cu-Ni phase diagram -.

casting.Importance of Phase Diagrams • There is a strong correlation between microstructure and mechanical properties. 20 . crystallization and other phenomena. • Phase diagrams provide valuable information about melting. and the development of alloy microstructure is related to the characteristics of its phase diagram.

their proportions. microstructure is characterized by the number of phases. time. rate of cooling) 21 . • The microstructure depends on: – Alloying elements – Concentration – Heat treatment (temperature. and the way they are arranged.Microstructure • In metal alloys.

• The proper ratios of phases to obtain a eutectic is identified by the eutectic point on a binary phase diagram.Eutectic • A eutectic or eutectic mixture is a mixture of two or more phases at a composition that has the lowest melting point. meaning 'easily melted. • It is where the phases simultaneously crystallize from molten solution. • The term comes from the Greek 'eutektos'.‘ 22 .

such as the gold-silver system. . A and B. The same conditions that force the material to form lamellae can instead form 23 an amorphous solid if pushed to an extreme. The eutectic point is the point where the liquid phase borders directly on the solid α + β phase. it represents the minimum melting temperature of any possible A B alloy. An alloy system that has a eutectic is often referred to as a eutectic system. and temperature along the Y-axis. • Solid products of a eutectic transformation can often be identified by their lamellar structure. • The temperature that corresponds to this point is known as the eutectic temperature. have no eutectic. • The phase diagram plots relative concentrations of A and B along the X-axis.• The phase diagram displays a simple binary system composed of two components. as opposed to the dendritic structures commonly seen in non-eutectic solidification. or eutectic alloy. which has a eutectic point. • Not all binary system alloys have a eutectic point: those that form a solid solution at all concentrations.

wt% Ag L(71.9 wt% Ag) a(8.2 L +b b • Eutectic reaction L(CE) a(CaE) + b(CbE) cooling heating 0 20 40 100 60 CE 80 C . b) L+ a a • Limited solubility: 779°C 800 T E a: mostly Cu 8.2 wt% Ag) 24 .0 wt% Ag)  b(91. T(°C) 1200 L (liquid) • 3 single phase regions 1000 (L.0 b: mostly Ag 600 • TE : No liquid below TE a  b 400 • CE : Composition at temperature TE 200 71.9 91. a.Binary-Eutectic Systems 2 components Cu-Ag system has a special composition with a min. melting T.

Copper-Silver Phase Diagram .

• An isothermal. GH Solidus – AB.0 wt% Ag)  b(91. β = 8. FG.0 wt% Ag. CE = 71. BEG (eutectic isotherm) Liquidus – AEF Maximum solubility: α = 8.9 wt% Ag) a(8.Eutectic Reaction • • • • • Solvus – (solid solubility line) BC. reversible reaction between two (or more) solid phases during the heating of a system where a single liquid phase is produced.9 wt% Ag.2 wt% Ag) 26 .8 wt %Cu Invariant point (where 3 phases are in equilibrium) is at E. TE = 779C (1434F). Eutectic reaction L(CE) a(CaE) + b(CbE) cooling heating L(71.

Pb-Sn Phase Diagram Liquidus Solidus Solidus Solidus Solvus Solvus .

• The solid lead-tin alloy consists of a mixture of two solid phases. Copper & nickel have the same crystal structure (FCC) and have nearly the same atomic radii. Lead & tin have different crystal structures (FCC versus BCT) and lead atoms are much larger. are completely soluble in both liquid and solid states for all concentrations of both metals. such as copper & nickel.2% of solid lead can dissolve in solid tin (according to previous phase diagram). 28 .Solidification of Eutectic Mixtures • Mixtures of some metals. No more than 18.3 wt% tin (the alpha phase) and one consisting of a maximum of 2. a mixture of lead & tin that is eutectic is only partially soluble when in the solid state. one consisting of a maximum of 18.2 wt% lead (the beta phase). Such completely miscible mixtures of metals are called isomorphous. The solid formed by cooling can have any proportion of copper & nickel.3 weight % solid tin can dissolve in solid lead and no more than 2. • By contrast.

Ca Cb .the phases present Answer: a + b -.Ca 40 .the phase compositions Answer: Ca = 11 wt% Sn Cb = 99 wt% Sn T(°C) 300 Pb-Sn system L (liquid) -.C0 W = b a Cb .11 29 = = 0.Ca = 99 .11 88 W b = C0 .(Ex 1) Pb-Sn Eutectic System • For a 40 wt% Sn-60 wt% Pb alloy at 150°C.11 88 200 150 100 a L+ a 183°C L +b b 61.3 a + b 0 11 20 Ca 40 C0 60 80 C.8 18.40 59 = = 0. determine: -.33 99 .9 97. wt% Sn 99100 Cb = 29 .67 99 .the relative amount of each phase Answer: C .

C0 46 .Ca 23 = = 0. wt% Sn 100 30 .40 = Wa = CL .Ca 46 .(Ex 2) Pb-Sn Eutectic System • For a 40 wt% Sn-60 wt% Pb alloy at 220°C.79 WL = CL .the phases present: Answer: a + L -.the phase compositions Answer: Ca = 17 wt% Sn CL = 46 wt% Sn T(°C) 300 L+a 220 a 200 L (liquid) -.17 6 = = 0.Ca 29 L +b b 183°C 100 a + b 0 17 20 Ca 40 46 60 80 C0 CL C.21 29 C0 .the relative amount of each phase Answer: CL . determine: -.

31 .9 wt% tin result in precipitation of lead-rich solid. • At 183ºC.9 wt% tin result in precipitation of a tinrich solid in the liquid mixture.9 wt% tin and the eutectic temperature is 183ºC -.which makes this mixture useful as solder. whereas compositions of less than 61. compositions of greater than 61.Pb-Sn • For lead & tin the eutectic composition is 61.

Microstructural Developments in Eutectic Systems .I T(°C) L: C0 wt% Sn L a 300 • For alloys where C0 < 2 wt% Sn 400 L a a: C0 wt% Sn • Result at room temperature is a polycrystalline with grains of a phase having composition C0 L+ a 200 TE 100 a+ b Pb-Sn system 0 10 20 C0 C. 2 (room T solubility limit) 30 wt% Sn 32 .

wt% 2 (sol. 300 L +a 200 L a a: C0 wt% Sn a TE a b 100 a+ b C0 C .3 (sol.Microstructural Developments in Eutectic Systems .3 wt% Sn • Results in polycrystalline microstructure with a grains and small b-phase particles at lower temperatures. limit at T room ) 18.II Pb-Sn system T(°C) 400 L: C0 wt% Sn L 2 wt% Sn < C0 < 18. limit at TE) 0 10 20 30 Sn 33 .

9 wt%Sn) cooling heating a (18.8 wt%Sn) .III • Co = CE • Results in a eutectic microstructure with alternating layers of a and b crystals. Pb-Sn system L(61.3 wt%Sn)  b (97.Microstructures in Eutectic Systems .

Lamellar Eutectic Structure A 2-phase microstructure resulting from the solidification of a liquid having the eutectic composition where the phases exist as a lamellae that alternate with one another. Compositions of α and β phases are very different. Pb-rich Sn-rich 35 . Formation of eutectic layered microstructure in the Pb-Sn system during solidification at the eutectic composition. Solidification involves redistribution of Pb and Sn atoms by atomic diffusion.

36 .Pb-Sn Microstructures The dark layers are Pb-rich α phase. the light layers are the Snrich β phase.

37/57 .Ni-Al Copper phosphorus eutectic Pb-Sn Ir-Si 20mol% CeO2-80mol% CoO.

C0 Wa = = 0.50 CL .C 0 Wa = Cβ .3 40 60 61.9 wt% Sn • Result: a phase particles and a eutectic T(°C) Pb-Sn system microconstituent • Just above TE : Ca = 18.9 80 100 97.Ca = 0.8 C.8 wt% Sn Cβ .IV • For alloys with18.9 wt% Sn CL .727 Wb = 0.Microstructures in Eutectic Systems .273 wt% Sn 38 0 20 18.3 wt% Sn Cb = 97.3 wt% Sn < C0 < 61.Ca WL = (1. wt% Sn .W a ) = 0.50 L: C0 wt% Sn L L a L 300 a L+ a a L+ 200 TE b b 100 a+b Primary α eutectic a eutectic b • Just below TE : Ca = 18.3 wt% Sn CL = 61.

Chapter 10 (part 2) • Equilibrium Diagrams with Intermediate Phases or Compounds • Eutectoid and Peritectic Reactions • Ceramic Phase Diagrams • The Gibbs Phase Rule • The Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram • Development of Microstructures in Iron-Carbon Alloys • Hypoeutectoid Alloys • Hypereutectoid Alloys • Influence of Other Alloying Elements 39 .

.not a phase region.Intermetallic Compounds 19 wt% Mg-81 wt% Pb Mg2Pb Note: intermetallic compounds exist as a line on the diagram . The composition of a compound has a distinct chemical 40 formula.

Cu-Zn System (Brass) Cartridge brass: 70 wt% Cu .

Eutectoid & Peritectic Peritectic transformation  + L  Cu-Zn Phase diagram Eutectoid transformation  + 42 .

Eutectic.6 wt% Zn) 43 . Eutectoid.liquid and one solid phase transform to a 2nd solid phase Solid1 + Liquid ↔ Solid2  +L cool heat ε (For Cu-Zn. & Peritectic • Eutectic .9 wt% Sn) heat • Eutectoid – one solid phase transforms to two other solid phases Solid1 ↔ Solid2 + Solid3  cool heat a + Fe3C (For Fe-C. 61.liquid transforms to two solid phases L cool a + b (For Pb-Sn. 0. 78. 183C. 598°C. 727C.76 wt% C) • Peritectic .

44 .

Ceramic Phase Diagrams MgO-Al2O3 diagram:  45 .

2200 T(°C) 3Al 2 O 3 -2SiO 2 Liquid (L) mullite alumina + L mullite +L mullite + crystobalite 20 00 1800 crystobalite +L 1600 1400 alumina + mullite 0 20 40 60 80 100 Composition (wt% alumina) 46 .Alumina (Al2O3) system. • Phase diagram shows: mullite. • Consider Silica (SiO2) . alumina and crystobalite (made up of SiO2) are candidate refractories.APPLICATION: REFRACTORIES • Need a material to use in high temperature furnaces.

Ceramic Phases and Cements 47 .

for example. we have 1 degree of freedom: F = 2 + 1 – 2= 1. then according to GPR. bL. 2 parameters must be given: temperature and composition. composition) C: components or compounds N: noncompositional variables For the Cu-Ag system @ 1 atm for a single phase P: N=1 (temperature). pressure. If 3 phases exist (for a binary system).Gibbs Phase Rule • • Phase diagrams and phase equilibria are subject to the laws of thermodynamics. So. . P= 1 (a. This means the composition and Temp are fixed. then we can completely define the system. This condition is met for a eutectic system by the 48 eutectic isotherm. there are 0 degrees of freedom. aL . C = 2 (Cu-Ag). b. P+F=C+N P: # of phases present F: degrees of freedom (temperature. Gibbs phase rule is a criterion that determines how many phases can coexist within a system at equilibrium. ab. L) F = 2 + 1 – 1= 2 This means that to characterize the alloy within a single phase field. if we have Temp or composition. If 2 phases coexist.

Carbon is an interstitial impurity in iron and forms a solid solution with the a.7 wt% C. Typically. Iron carbide (cementite or Fe3C) an intermediate compound is formed at 6.7 wt% C. all steels and cast irons have carbon contents less than 6. • • • • 49 . ferrite (a iron) has a BCC crystal structure.Iron-Carbon System • • • Pure iron when heated experiences 2 changes in crystal structure before it melts. Ferrite experiences a polymorphic transformation to FCC austenite ( iron) at 912 ˚C (1674 ˚F). At room temperature the stable form.  phases. . At 1394˚C (2541˚F) austenite reverts back to BCC phase  ferrite and melts at 1538 ˚C (2800 ˚F).

Iron-Carbon System .

it significantly influences the mechanical properties of ferrite: (a) α ferrite. . (b) austenite.Though carbon is present in relatively low concentrations.

4 Solid Phases .

008 to 2. • Mechanically.70 wt% C 53 .008 wt% C room temp  Steel (a + Fe3C phase): 0. • For ferrous alloys there are 3 basic types.14 to 6.Iron carbide (Cementite or Fe3C) • Forms when the solubility limit of carbon in a ferrite is exceeded at temperatures below 727 ˚C. cementite is very hard and brittle.14 wt% C  Cast iron: 2. based on carbon content:  Iron (ferrite phase): <0.

7 C.Eutectoid (B):  ↔a + Fe3C     B  +Fe3C 727°C = Teutectoid a+Fe3C 0.Iron-Carbon (Fe-C) Phase Diagram • 2 important points . not a separate phase.76 1 2 3 4 120 mm 400 0 (Fe) 4. Fe3C (cementite-hard) a (ferrite-soft) 54 Fe3C (cementite)  +L  (austenite) A 1148°C L+Fe3C .30 5 6 6.Eutectic (A): T(°C) 1600  1400 1200 1000 800 a 600 L L ↔  + Fe3C . wt% C Result: Pearlite = alternating layers of a and Fe3C phases.

Eutectoid reaction:  ↔ a + Fe3C Pearlite Redistribution of carbon by diffusion Austenite – 0.022 wt% C Cementite .76 wt% C Ferrite .6.0.70 wt% C .

76 wt% Carbon are hypoeutectoid.7 pearlite = a + Fe3C C.76 a + Fe3C 2 3 4 5 6 6.C0 C .C0 Fe3C (cementite)   a a 1200  +L  (austenite) 1148°C L+Fe3C .Ca 1000 800 727°C  + Fe3C W =(1 .Ca CFe3C . CFe3C .Wa) pearlite a 600 400 0 (Fe) C0 1 0. wt% C Wa’ = Wpearlite Microstructures for iron-iron carbide alloys that are below = (1 – Wa’) the eutectoid with compositions between 0.Hypoeutectoid Steel T(°C) 1600  1400 a L Wa = a C .022 and 0.

76 a 2 3 4 5 6 6. wt% C 57 .Hypoeutectoid Steel T(°C) 1600  1400 L Fe3C (cementite) 1148°C         a   a  a  +L  1200 (austenite) 1000 800 727°C L+Fe3C  + Fe3C a 600 400 0 (Fe)C0 pearlite a + Fe3C 1 0.7 C.

58 . • The ferrite that is formed above the Teutectoid (727°C) is proeutectoid.Proeutectoid • Formed before the eutectoid • Ferrite that is present in the pearlite is called eutectoid ferrite.

59 .

Hypereutectoid Steel T(°C) 1600  1400 Fe3C L Fe3C (cementite) 1148°C      +L  1200 (austenite) 1000 800 L+Fe3C W =x/(v + x) WFe3C =(1-W)  +Fe3C v x V 1 C0 a 0.14 wt% carbon are hypereutectoid (more than eutectoid). .76 and 2. wt%C Wa = X/(V + X) 3C’ =(1 .7 C.76 Wpearlite = W WFe 600 pearlite 400 0 (Fe) X 2 3 a +Fe3C 4 5 6 6.Wa) Microstructures for iron-iron carbide alloys that have compositions between 0.

T(°C) 1600 Hypereutectoid Steel L Fe3C (cementite) 1148°C  1400     Fe3C      +L  1200 (austenite) 1000 800 L+Fe3C  +Fe3C     a 600 400 0 (Fe) pearlite 1 C0 2 3 a +Fe3C 0. wt%C 61 .76 4 5 6 6.7 C.

Hypereutectoid Steel (1.2 wt% C) pearlite Proeutectoid: formed above the Teutectoid (727°C) .

9 80 100 C.Hypoeutectic & Hypereutectic 300 T(°C) 200 TE L a L+ a a+b L+b b (Pb-Sn System) 100 0 20 40 60 eutectic 61.9 wt% Sn b b 160 mm b b b b eutectic micro-constituent 63 . wt% Sn hypoeutectic: C0 = 50 wt% Sn hypereutectic: (illustration only) a a a a a a 175 mm eutectic: C0 = 61.

64 .

Example Problem
For a 99.6 wt% Fe-0.40 wt% C steel at a temperature just below the eutectoid, determine the following: a) The compositions of Fe3C and ferrite (a). b) The amount of cementite (in grams) that forms in 100 g of steel.

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Solution to Example Problem
a) Using the RS tie line just below the eutectoid

Ca = 0.022 wt% C CFe3C = 6.70 wt% C
b) Using the lever rule with the tie line shown
1600

1200 1000

0.40  0.022  0.057 6.70  0.022

(austenite)

1148°C

L+Fe3C

 + Fe3C
727°C

800

R

Amount of Fe3C in 100 g = (100 g)WFe3C = (100 g)(0.057) = 5.7 g

600 400 0 1 2 3

S a + Fe3C
4 5 6

Ca C0

C , wt% C

CFe
66

6.7
3C

Fe3C (cementite)

WFe 3C

R C  Ca   0 R  S CFe 3C  Ca

1400

L

T(°C)

 +L

Alloying steel with other elements changes the Eutectoid Temperature, Position of phase boundaries and relative Amounts of each phase

67

68 .

69 .

Cooling Curves 70 .

71 .

72 .

• The microstructure of an alloy depends on -. -. and -.the composition of each phase.rate of cooling equilibrium 73 . -.its composition.the number and types of phases present.Summary • Phase diagrams are useful tools to determine: -.and the weight fraction of each phase For a given temperature and composition of the system.

Review 74 .

Answer: The first liquid forms at the temperature where a vertical line at this composition intersects the α-(α + L) phase boundary--i.• • • Heating a copper-nickel alloy of composition 70 wt% Ni-30 wt% Cu from 1300°C.e.Temperature where alloy is completely solid. Above this line. liquefaction begins. Wt% Ni 75 .. about 1350°C. At what temperature does the first liquid phase form? Solidus .

of a tie line constructed across the α + L phase region at 1350°C. Wt% Ni 76 . 59 wt% Ni.• (b) What is the composition of this liquid phase? • Answer: The composition of this liquid phase corresponds to the intersection with the (α + L)-L phase boundary.

.e. • Answer: Complete melting of the alloy occurs at the intersection of this same vertical line at 70 wt% Ni with the (α + L)-L phase boundary--i.Temperature where alloy is completely liquid. solidification begins.• (c) At what temperature does complete melting of the alloy occur? • Liquidus . Below this line. about 1380°C. Wt% Ni 77 .

. Wt% Ni 78 . of the tie line constructed across the α + L phase region at 1380°C--i.• (d) What is the composition of the last solid remaining prior to complete melting? • Answer: The composition of the last solid remaining prior to complete melting corresponds to the intersection with α-(α + L) phase boundary. about 78 wt% Ni.e.

THE LEVER RULE: A PROOF • Sum of weight fractions: WL  Wa  1 • Conservation of mass (Ni): Co  WL CL  WaCa • Combine above equations: • A geometric interpretation: moment equilibrium: WLR  WaS 1  Wa solving gives Lever Rule 9 .