BLOOM’S TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

May Elaine Chavez Kristine Culaway

Niña Jesusa Samonte

The cognitive taxonomy contains six major classes of objectives arranged in hierarchical order on the basis of the complexity of task. These are:

THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN

I. Knowledge

1. Of Specifics a.) Terminology b.) Specific Facts

II.Comprehension

2. Of ways and Means of Dealing with Specifics a.) Conventions b.) Trends and Sequences c.) Classification and Categories d.) Criteria e.) Methodology 3. Of Universals and Abstractions in the Field
1. Translation 2. Interpretation 3. Extrapolation

III.Application IV. Analysis
1. Analysis of Elements 2. Analysis of Relationships 3. Analysis of /organizational Principles

V. Synthesis
1. Production of a Unique Communication 2. Production of a Plan, or Proposed set of Operation 3. Derivations of a Set of Abstract Relations

VI.Evaluation
1. Judgements in terms of Internal Evidence 2. Judgements in Terms of External Criteria
Bloom’s Taxonomy enables teachers and educators to use exact and varied terminologies for stating specific learning outcomes.

FORMULATING LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Description of the Major Categories in the Cognitive Domain Illustrative General Instructional Objectives Illustrative Behavioral Terms for Stating Specific Learning Outcomes

KNOWLEDGE.

It is defined as the remembering of the previously learned material. This may involve the recall of a wide range of material, from specific facts to complete theories, but all that is required is the bringing to mind of the appropriate information. Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcome in the cognitive domain.

Knows common terms Knows specific facts Knows methods and procedures Knows basic concepts Knows principle

Defines, describes, Identifies, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, reproduces, selects states

Description of the Major Categories in the Cognitive Domain

Illustrative General Instructional Objectives

Illustrative Behavioral Terms for Stating Specific Learning Outcomes

COMPREHENSION.

It is defined as the ability to grasp the meaning of the material. This maybe shown by translating material from one form to another, by interpreting material, and by estimating future trends. These learning outcomes go one step beyond the simple remembering of material and represent the lowest level of understanding.

Understands facts and principles Interprets verbal materials Interprets charts and graphs Translate verbal to mathematical formulas Estimates future consequences Justifies methods and procedures

Converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, infers, generalizes, gives examples, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes

Description of the Major Categories in the Cognitive Domain

Illustrative General Instructional Objectives

Illustrative Behavioral Terms for Stating Specific Learning Outcomes

APPLICATION
It refers to the ability to use learned material in a new and concrete situation. This may include the application of such things as rules, methods, concepts, laws, principles, and theories. Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding than those under comprehension.

Applies concepts and principles to new situations Applies laws and theories to practical situations Solves mathematical problems Demonstrates correct usage of a method or procedure Constructs charts and graphs

Changes, computes, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, uses, produces, relates, shows, solves

Description of the Major Categories in the Cognitive Domain

Illustrative General Instructional Objectives

Illustrative Behavioral Terms for Stating Specific Learning Outcomes Breaks down, diagrams, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, points out, relates, selects, separates, subdivides

ANALYSIS.

It refers to the ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure maybe understood. This may include the identification of the parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved. Learning outcomes here represent a higher intellectual level than comprehension of both the content and structural form of material.

Recognizes unstated assumptions Recognizes logical fallacies in reasoning Distinguishes between facts and opinion/inferences Evaluates the relevancy of data Analyzes the organizational Structure of a work

Description of the Major Categories in the Cognitive Domain

Illustrative General Instructional Objectives

Illustrative Behavioral Terms for Stating Specific Learning Outcomes Categories, combines, complies, composes, creates, devices, designs, explains, generates, modifies, plans, organizes, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarises, tells, writes.

SYNTHESIS.

It refers to the ability to put parts together to form a new whole. This may involve the production of a unique communication (theme or speech), a plan of operations (research proposal), or a set of abstract relations (scheme of classifying information). Learning outcomes in this area stress creative behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structures.

Writes a well organized theme Gives a well organized speech Writes a creative short story (or poem, or music) Propose a plan for an experiment Integrates learning from different areas into a plan for solving a problem Formulates a new scheme for classifying objects (or events or ideas)

Description of the Major Categories in the Cognitive Domain

Illustrative General Instructional Objectives

Illustrative Behavioral Terms for Stating Specific Learning Outcomes Appraises, compares, concludes, contrast, criticizes, describes, discriminates, explains, justifies, interprets, relates, summarizes, supports.

EVALUATION.

Evaluation is concerned with the ability to judge the value of material (statement, novel, poem, research, and report) for a given purpose. The judgements are to be based on definite criteria or be given to them. Learning outcomes in this area are highest in the cognitive hierarchy because they contain elements of all the categories, plus conscious value judgements based on clearly defined criteria.

Judges the logical consistency of written material Judges the adequacy with which conclusions are supported by data Judges the value of work (art, music, writing) by use of internal criteria Judges the value of work (art, music, writing) by use of external standards of excellence

The Affective Domain
The Affective Domain – is concerned
with the changes in interests, attitudes, and values and the development of appreciation and adjustment.

Affective domain are classified as to:
I.

Receiving (Attending)

1. Awareness 2. Willingness to receive 3. Controlled or selected attention This is the lowest of the affective domain. At this level the student is aware of the existence of a condition or problem and is willing at least to listen attentively to what others have to say about it. An objective at this level might be for the student to demonstrate a willingness to learn about environmental protection by contributing to an introductory discussion on the subject.

II.

Responding

1. Acquiescence in responding 2. Willingness to respond 3. Satisfaction to respond At this level the student are willing to go along with an idea or a value (such as being willing to follow school rules), actively volunteers to respond, and takes satisfaction in the response. An objective at this level might be for the student to display an interest in solving environmental social problems by taking a stand in classroom discussions against environmental destruction.

III.Valuing

1. Acceptance of a value 2. Preference for a value 3. Commitment Here the students demonstrates that an attitude has been accepted and is constantly preferred over competing attitudes and values. An objective at this level might be for the student to indicate a commitment to environmental protection and promotion by becoming an active member of a community service organization.

IV.Organization

1. Conceptualization of a value 2. Organization of a value system An objective at the Organizational level might be for the students to identify in their own lives two conflicting values relative to environmental protection and promotion and to describe how that conflict will be resolved.

V.

Characterization

1. Generalized set 2. Characterization An objective at this level might be for the student to demonstrate continuing commitment to the idea of environmental promotion by studying to be an ecologist who specializes in metropolitan ecology problems.

The Psychomotor Domain
The psychomotor domain is concerned on the development of motor skills and neuromuscular control. Objectives in the psychomotor domain often contain elements of the cognitive and affective domain (vice versa), but the dominant characteristic and intent of the students’ response is physical movement.

The psychomotor domain has five levels namely: imitation, manipulation, precision, articulation, and naturalization.
Descriptors of Major Categories in the Psychomotor Domain

Illustrative Verbs
Begin, assemble, attempt, carry out, copy, calibrate, construct, dissect, duplicate, follow, mimic, move, practice, proceed, repeat, reproduced, respond, organize, sketch, start, try, volunteer.

1. Imitation
Early stage in learning a complex skill, overtly, after the individual has indicated a readiness to take a particular type of action. Imitation includes repeating an act that has been demonstrated or explained, and it includes trial and error until an appropriate response is achieved.

Descriptors of Major Categories in the Psychomotor Domain

Illustrative Verbs (same as imitation), acquire, assemble, complete, conduct, do, execute, improve, maintain, make, manipulate, operate, pace, perform, produce, progress, use.

2. Manipulation
Individual continues to practice a particular skill or sequence until it becomes habitual and the action can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. The response is more complex than at the previous level, but the learner is still isn’t “sure of himself/herself.”

Descriptors of Major Categories in the Psychomotor Domain

Illustrative Verbs (same as imitation and manipulation) achieve, accomplish, advance, automatize, exceed, excel, master, reach, refine, succeed, surpass, transcend.

3. Precision Skill has been attained. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, smooth, accurate performance, requiring a minimum of energy. The overt response is complex and performed without hesitation.

Descriptors of Major Categories in the Psychomotor Domain

Illustrative Verbs

4. Articulation Involve an even higher level of Adapt, alter, change, excel, rearrange, reorganize, revise, precision. The skills are so surpass, transcend. well developed that the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements or to meet a problem situation.

Descriptors of Major Categories in the Psychomotor Domain

Illustrative Verbs Arrange, combine, compose, construct, create, design, refine, originate, transcend.

5. Naturalization Response is automatic. The individual begins to experiment, creating new motor acts or ways of manipulating materials out of understandings, abilities, and skills developed. One acts “without thinking”.

Thank you!!!