Hyphen and Apostrophe

By: Janice S. Almeñana

Key Concept
 Use

a hyphen after a prefix that is followed by a proper noun or a proper adjective Example: pre- Renaissance Mid – February Un – American Prefix that may be used before proper nouns or proper adjectives are ante-, anti-, mid-, post-, pre-, pro-, and un-

ex-. Examples: all – powerful Ex – jockey Self – made Mayor – elect .Key Concept  Use a hyphen in words with the prefixes all-. and word with the suffix elect. self-.

Although some compound words are written as one word and others are written as two words. Example: Sister-in-law Tractor-trailer Six-year-old .Key concept  – use a hyphen to connect two or more words that are used as one word unless the dictionary give a contrary spelling. many compound words are joined with hyphens.

Key Concept  Use a hyphen to connect a compound modifier that comes before a noun unless it includes a word ending in –ly or is a compound proper adjective or compound proper noun acting as an adjective .

• Example with hyphen: -a well-made pair of jeans -The bright-eyed children -An up-to-date decision • Example without hyphen: -Widely distributed information -East European language -Red River valley .

bout Correct: about scream-ed screamed toant-y toanty • • . Incorrect: a.Key concept  Do not divide a word so that a single letter or the letter –ed stand alone.

Key concept  avoid dividing proper nouns and proper adjectives Incorrect: Fe-licia Correct: Felicia Amer-ican American • • .

Incorrect: we are going with my sister and my bro-ther-in-law Correct: we are going with my sister and my brother-in-law .Key concept  dividing • • a hyphenated word only after the hyphen.

. contraction.Using Apostrophes Apostrophes are used to form possessives. and a few specials plurals Forming Possessives: the following rules tell you how to show possession with various types of nouns.

Examples: The wallet of the woman The woman’s wallet The collar of two dog The dog’s collar The lines of the actress The actress’s line .Key Concept  add an apostrophe and as –s to show the possessive case of the most singular nouns.

Example: Confucius’ teaching Tacitus’ history . For classical reference ending in –s only an apostrophe is used.

The possessive case of plural nouns follows two rules: .

Key concept  add an apostrophe to show the possessive case of plural noun ending in –s or –es. Examples: The barking of the dogs The dogs’ barking The color of the leaves The leaves’ color .

Example: The books of the woman The woman’s book The grazing lands of oxen The oxen grazing land. .Key concept  add an apostrophe and an –s to show the possessive case of plural nouns that do not end in –s or –es.

Key concept  add an apostrophe and an s ( or just an apostrophe if the word is a plural ending in s) to the last word of a compound noun to form possessive. .

Name of businesses And organization: -The Salvation Army’s headquarters -The Department of the Interior Budget -The Johnson Associates’ Clients .

treasurer’s idea -the nurse-practitioner’s patient Hyphenated Compound Noun used to Describe people: .Tittles of Rulers And leaders: -Catherine the Great’s victories -Louis XVI’ s palace -my sister-in-law car -the secretary.

user n apostrophe and an –s or just an apostrophe if the possessive in plural . or the sake. amount.Key concept  to form possessive involving time.

 Time: -a month’s vacation -three day’s vacation -a half-hour’s time -one quarter’s worth -two cents’ worth  Amount:  Sake -for Marjorie’s sake -for goodness’ sake .

Apostrophes Indicating Missing Letters .

Verb and Not Pronoun and Will Cannot Could He will You will She will She would He would You would You are She is They are cant couldn’t he’ll you’ll she’ll she’d he’d you’d you’re she’s they’re Are not Will not I will We will They will aren’t won’t I’ll we’ll they’ll Pronoun and would Pronoun or Noun and the Verb be: I would I’d We would we’d They would they’d I am Jane is I’m Jane’s .