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**Combination of Sparse Representations
**

Wei Wang, Wenchao Chen, Jinghuai Gao, Jin Xu

Institute of Wave & Information,

Xi’an Jiaotong University

International Symposium on Geophysical Imaging with Localized Waves

Sanya, Hainan, 24-28 July, 2011

Institute of Wave & Information, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, P.R. China

Co-Authors

Wenchao Chen Jinghuai Gao Jin Xu

• Introduction

• Morphological Component Analysis

• Abrupt Feature Extraction Methodology

• Synthetic and field data examples

• Conclusions

Outline

• Problems for stratigraphic interpretation

– Complexity of channels in 3D seismic data always

makes detailed interpretation challenging;

– Definition of sand bars and beaches also becomes

complicated as they are only partially visible when

seismic amplitude is examined.

• How to improve imaging these features

– Current interpretation workflows adopt advanced

color and opacity based co-rendering techniques to

merge multiple stratigraphic attributes.

Introduction

• Current multi-attributes trap

– Instantaneous attributes, e.g., the peak frequency

depicts horizontal distribution of channels and the

envelope highlight bright spots and dim spots;

– Coherence attributes are taken to delimit the edges

of stratigraphic units;

– Spectral decomposition generates narrow-band

instantaneous amplitude volumes and allows better

imaging channel details.

Time-consuming to interpret many seismic attributes;

Multi-attribute analysis techniques, e.g., multi-attribute

3D visualization, PCA, cluster analysis, sometimes

lack explicit physical meaning.

• Motivation

– Raw seismic time samples contain all information

represented by various seismic attributes;

– The amplitude and phase spectra and the spatial

architecture within an analysis window form specific

waveform patterns.

• Our approach

Adopt the morphological component analysis (MCA)

theory (Starck, et al., 2005), to extract waveforms of

meaningful stratigraphic targets from seismic data;

Different waveform dictionaries are chosen to

represent specific waveform patterns by exploring

their sparsity.

• Assumptions of the MCA

Firstly, the signal is assumed as a linear

combination of different morphological features

which are sparsely represented by n different

dictionaries:

Morphological Component Analysis

1 1

(1)

n n

k k k

k k

s s o

= =

= = u

¿ ¿

where each signal component can be described as

with an overcomplete dictionary and a

sparse representation .

k k k

s o = u

k

u

k

o

• Assumptions of the MCA

Secondly, the MCA assumes that for any given

component s

k

the sparsest decomposition over the

proper dictionary yields a highly sparse description,

while its decomposition over the other dictionaries,

Φ

j≠k

, is highly non sparse, that is

• Sparsity-promoted signal separation

In the MCA framework, the decomposition

coefficients of corresponding signal components

are the solutions of

{ } { }

0 0

, 1, , ; . (2)

T T

k k k j

k j n j k s s ¬ e = ¬ u < u

k

o

• Sparsity-promoted signal separation

By substituting the norm by an norm, and

relaxing the equality constraint, the MCA algorithm

finally seeks a solution by solving the convex

minimization problem (Starck, et al., 2005),

NP-Hard Optimization Problem

{ }

1

0

, ,

1 1

Argmin .

n

n n

k k k

k k

subject to s

o o

o o

= =

= u

¿ ¿

0

l

1

l

1

2

1

, ,

1 1

2

1

Argmin (3)

2

n

n n

T

k k k

s s

k k

s s s ì

= =

u + ÷

¿ ¿

• Signal decomposition example

“Bumps+Cosine” Separation

DCT dictionary

Wavelet dictionary

• Signal model assumption

According to morphologic appearance in vertical

sections, volumetric flattened seismic data are

composed of coherent events and abrupt features;

We thus model these two kinds of seismic features

as linear structures and punctate structures

respectively. A vertical section s along the inline

direction is formulated as

Abrupt Feature Extraction Methodology

1 2

n (4) s s s = + +

: abrupt features; : coherent events;

n: a zero-mean Gaussian noise matrix with a

standard deviation .

1

s

2

s

o

• Nonlinear optimization model

1 2

2

1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2

2

1 1

,

1

Argmin (5)

2

T T

s s

s s s s s ì ì u + u + ÷ ÷

& : representing dictionaries (s

1

& s

2

);

& : controlling how much the sparseness

priors are emphasized on the model.

1

u

2

u

1

ì

2

ì

The success of MCA relies on the incoherence

between sub-dictionaries and each sub-dictionary

should lead to sparse representations of the

corresponding signal component.

• Choice of representations

The 2D-UWT presents only three directional

elements independent of scales, and there are no

highly anisotropic elements. We expect the 2D-UWT

to be non-optimal for detection of highly anisotropic

features and adopt it to detect punctate features.

Fig.1 2D-UWT atoms

along the horizontal,

vertical, and diagonal

direction, with three

different scale indexes.

• Choice of representations

The curvelet transform is a redundant dictionary and

the curvelet elements are anisotropic and obey the

parabolic scaling, which makes it the best choice for

the detection of anisotropic structures such as

coherent wavefronts.

Fig.2 Discrete curvelets

indexed by different scale,

orientation, and location.

• Implementation

To deal with 3D seismic data, our algorithm is performed

line-by-line, each vertical slice separated into abrupt

features and coherent events via the iterative-shrinkage

algorithm (Bruce et al., 1998; Daubechies et al., 2005):

1) Initialize N, ,

11 12 1N

ì ì ì > > >

21 22 2N

ì ì ì > > >

2) Iterative procedure, n=1,2, …,N,

a) Update x

1

, assume x

2

fixed,

( ) { }

1,

1, 1 1, 1, 1 2, 2 1

n

T

n n n n

s

ì +

= + ÷ u ÷ u u x T x x x

b) Update x

2

, assume x

1

fixed,

( ) { }

2,

2, 1 2, 1, 1 1 2, 2 2

n

T

n n n n

s

ì + +

= + ÷ u ÷ u u x T x x x

3)

1 1, 1

,

N

s = u x

2 2, 2 N

s = u x

Synthetic data examples

(a) The earth model with a thin channel

with the size of 100-m wide and 10-m

thick embedded. Both the horizontal and

vertical sampled at 2.5-m.

(b) The migrated seismic section is

generated by the PSDM algorithm

using a Ricker wavelet with dominant

frequency 60 Hz.

The reflection waveforms of the channel appear as a bright spot and overlap

the coherent reflection events.

Separated synthetic sections by the

proposed method: (a) The migrated

seismic section of the earth model;

(b) The extracted abrupt features

part and (c) the coherent events part.

Field data examples

(a) An inline section from volumetric

flattened 3D seismic data

(b) The separated coherent events

part using the proposed method

R

e

l

a

t

i

v

e

G

e

o

l

o

g

i

c

a

l

T

i

m

e

(

s

)

CMP No. CMP No.

(a) An inline section from volumetric

flattened 3D seismic data

(c) The extracted abrupt features

part using the proposed method

R

e

l

a

t

i

v

e

G

e

o

l

o

g

i

c

a

l

T

i

m

e

(

s

)

CMP No. CMP No.

(a) Zoomed part of the

inline section

(b) Zoomed part of the

coherent events component

(c) Zoomed part of the

abrupt features component

R

e

l

a

t

i

v

e

G

e

o

l

o

g

i

c

a

l

T

i

m

e

(

s

)

CMP No. CMP No. CMP No.

Top of Channel

Bottom of Channel

(b) The extracted abrupt features

part using the proposed method

(a) An horizontal slice from

volumetric flattened 3D seismic data

(a) An horizontal slice from

volumetric flattened 3D seismic data

(b) The extracted abrupt features

part using the proposed method

The MCA technique is utilized to extract sedimentary

features from 3D volumetric flattened seismic data;

Since sedimentary features modeled as punctate

structures, the 2D-UWT is chosen to represent the

sedimentary features while the curvelet transform, is

chosen to sparsify coherent events representation;

Both synthetic & field data examples show the efficiency

of our method for interpreting sedimentary features. The

extracted abrupt feature waveforms can be used for

subsequent quantitive analysis and reservoir modeling.

Conclusions

• This work has been partially supported by the NSFC

(No. 40730424 & No. 40674064), the NHTRDPC (No.

2006AA09A102-11), and the INSTSP (No. 2008ZX05023-

005-005 & No. 2008ZX05025-001-009).

• We would like to thank Exploration and Development

Research Institute of Daqing Oilfield Company Ltd. for

their supporting us seismic data.

Acknowledgements

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