Abrupt Feature Extraction via the

Combination of Sparse Representations
Wei Wang, Wenchao Chen, Jinghuai Gao, Jin Xu
Institute of Wave & Information,
Xi’an Jiaotong University
International Symposium on Geophysical Imaging with Localized Waves
Sanya, Hainan, 24-28 July, 2011
Institute of Wave & Information, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, P.R. China
Co-Authors
Wenchao Chen Jinghuai Gao Jin Xu
• Introduction
• Morphological Component Analysis
• Abrupt Feature Extraction Methodology
• Synthetic and field data examples
• Conclusions
Outline
• Problems for stratigraphic interpretation
– Complexity of channels in 3D seismic data always
makes detailed interpretation challenging;
– Definition of sand bars and beaches also becomes
complicated as they are only partially visible when
seismic amplitude is examined.
• How to improve imaging these features
– Current interpretation workflows adopt advanced
color and opacity based co-rendering techniques to
merge multiple stratigraphic attributes.
Introduction
• Current multi-attributes trap
– Instantaneous attributes, e.g., the peak frequency
depicts horizontal distribution of channels and the
envelope highlight bright spots and dim spots;
– Coherence attributes are taken to delimit the edges
of stratigraphic units;
– Spectral decomposition generates narrow-band
instantaneous amplitude volumes and allows better
imaging channel details.
 Time-consuming to interpret many seismic attributes;
 Multi-attribute analysis techniques, e.g., multi-attribute
3D visualization, PCA, cluster analysis, sometimes
lack explicit physical meaning.
• Motivation
– Raw seismic time samples contain all information
represented by various seismic attributes;
– The amplitude and phase spectra and the spatial
architecture within an analysis window form specific
waveform patterns.
• Our approach
 Adopt the morphological component analysis (MCA)
theory (Starck, et al., 2005), to extract waveforms of
meaningful stratigraphic targets from seismic data;
 Different waveform dictionaries are chosen to
represent specific waveform patterns by exploring
their sparsity.
• Assumptions of the MCA
 Firstly, the signal is assumed as a linear
combination of different morphological features
which are sparsely represented by n different
dictionaries:




Morphological Component Analysis
1 1
(1)
n n
k k k
k k
s s o
= =
= = u
¿ ¿
where each signal component can be described as
with an overcomplete dictionary and a
sparse representation .
k k k
s o = u
k
u
k
o
• Assumptions of the MCA
 Secondly, the MCA assumes that for any given
component s
k
the sparsest decomposition over the
proper dictionary yields a highly sparse description,
while its decomposition over the other dictionaries,
Φ
j≠k
, is highly non sparse, that is


• Sparsity-promoted signal separation
 In the MCA framework, the decomposition
coefficients of corresponding signal components
are the solutions of
{ } { }
0 0
, 1, , ; . (2)
T T
k k k j
k j n j k s s ¬ e = ¬ u < u
k
o
• Sparsity-promoted signal separation




 By substituting the norm by an norm, and
relaxing the equality constraint, the MCA algorithm
finally seeks a solution by solving the convex
minimization problem (Starck, et al., 2005),


NP-Hard Optimization Problem
{ }
1
0
, ,
1 1
Argmin .
n
n n
k k k
k k
subject to s
o o
o o
= =
= u
¿ ¿
0
l
1
l
1
2
1
, ,
1 1
2
1
Argmin (3)
2
n
n n
T
k k k
s s
k k
s s s ì
= =
u + ÷
¿ ¿
• Signal decomposition example





“Bumps+Cosine” Separation
DCT dictionary
Wavelet dictionary
• Signal model assumption
 According to morphologic appearance in vertical
sections, volumetric flattened seismic data are
composed of coherent events and abrupt features;
 We thus model these two kinds of seismic features
as linear structures and punctate structures
respectively. A vertical section s along the inline
direction is formulated as
Abrupt Feature Extraction Methodology
1 2
n (4) s s s = + +
: abrupt features; : coherent events;
n: a zero-mean Gaussian noise matrix with a
standard deviation .
1
s
2
s
o
• Nonlinear optimization model








1 2
2
1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2
2
1 1
,
1
Argmin (5)
2
T T
s s
s s s s s ì ì u + u + ÷ ÷
& : representing dictionaries (s
1
& s
2
);
& : controlling how much the sparseness
priors are emphasized on the model.
1
u
2
u
1
ì
2
ì
The success of MCA relies on the incoherence
between sub-dictionaries and each sub-dictionary
should lead to sparse representations of the
corresponding signal component.
• Choice of representations
 The 2D-UWT presents only three directional
elements independent of scales, and there are no
highly anisotropic elements. We expect the 2D-UWT
to be non-optimal for detection of highly anisotropic
features and adopt it to detect punctate features.


Fig.1 2D-UWT atoms
along the horizontal,
vertical, and diagonal
direction, with three
different scale indexes.
• Choice of representations
 The curvelet transform is a redundant dictionary and
the curvelet elements are anisotropic and obey the
parabolic scaling, which makes it the best choice for
the detection of anisotropic structures such as
coherent wavefronts.


Fig.2 Discrete curvelets
indexed by different scale,
orientation, and location.
• Implementation




To deal with 3D seismic data, our algorithm is performed
line-by-line, each vertical slice separated into abrupt
features and coherent events via the iterative-shrinkage
algorithm (Bruce et al., 1998; Daubechies et al., 2005):
1) Initialize N, ,
11 12 1N
ì ì ì > > >
21 22 2N
ì ì ì > > >
2) Iterative procedure, n=1,2, …,N,
a) Update x
1
, assume x
2
fixed,
( ) { }
1,
1, 1 1, 1, 1 2, 2 1
n
T
n n n n
s
ì +
= + ÷ u ÷ u u x T x x x
b) Update x
2
, assume x
1
fixed,
( ) { }
2,
2, 1 2, 1, 1 1 2, 2 2
n
T
n n n n
s
ì + +
= + ÷ u ÷ u u x T x x x
3)
1 1, 1
,
N
s = u x
2 2, 2 N
s = u x




Synthetic data examples
(a) The earth model with a thin channel
with the size of 100-m wide and 10-m
thick embedded. Both the horizontal and
vertical sampled at 2.5-m.
(b) The migrated seismic section is
generated by the PSDM algorithm
using a Ricker wavelet with dominant
frequency 60 Hz.
The reflection waveforms of the channel appear as a bright spot and overlap
the coherent reflection events.
Separated synthetic sections by the
proposed method: (a) The migrated
seismic section of the earth model;
(b) The extracted abrupt features
part and (c) the coherent events part.




Field data examples
(a) An inline section from volumetric
flattened 3D seismic data
(b) The separated coherent events
part using the proposed method










R
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G
e
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o
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T
i
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(
s
)

CMP No. CMP No.
(a) An inline section from volumetric
flattened 3D seismic data
(c) The extracted abrupt features
part using the proposed method










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CMP No. CMP No.
(a) Zoomed part of the
inline section
(b) Zoomed part of the
coherent events component
(c) Zoomed part of the
abrupt features component













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G
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(
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CMP No. CMP No. CMP No.
Top of Channel
Bottom of Channel
(b) The extracted abrupt features
part using the proposed method
(a) An horizontal slice from
volumetric flattened 3D seismic data
(a) An horizontal slice from
volumetric flattened 3D seismic data
(b) The extracted abrupt features
part using the proposed method
 The MCA technique is utilized to extract sedimentary
features from 3D volumetric flattened seismic data;

 Since sedimentary features modeled as punctate
structures, the 2D-UWT is chosen to represent the
sedimentary features while the curvelet transform, is
chosen to sparsify coherent events representation;

 Both synthetic & field data examples show the efficiency
of our method for interpreting sedimentary features. The
extracted abrupt feature waveforms can be used for
subsequent quantitive analysis and reservoir modeling.
Conclusions
• This work has been partially supported by the NSFC
(No. 40730424 & No. 40674064), the NHTRDPC (No.
2006AA09A102-11), and the INSTSP (No. 2008ZX05023-
005-005 & No. 2008ZX05025-001-009).
• We would like to thank Exploration and Development
Research Institute of Daqing Oilfield Company Ltd. for
their supporting us seismic data.
Acknowledgements