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The word photography was first used by the scientist Sir John F.W. Herschel in 1839. It comes from the French photographie which is based on the Greek φώς (phos) light + γραφίς (graphis) stylus / paintbrush or γραφή (graphê) representation by means of lines / drawing, together = drawing with light. Photography is the science and art of recording images by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects expose a sensitive silver halide based chemical or electronic medium during a timed exposure, usually through a photographic lens in a device known as a camera that also stores the resulting information chemically or electronically.
The Chinese were the first people that we know of to write about the basic idea of the pinhole camera. About 2,500 years ago (5th Century BC) they wrote about how an image was formed upside down from a "pinhole" on the opposite wall. About 2,400 years ago (4th Century BC) the famous Greek philosopher Aristotle talked about a pinhole image formation in his work. He wondered why "when light shines through a rectangular peep-hole, it appears circular in the form of a cone?" He did not find an answer to his question and the problem was not answered until about 1600 years later in the early 1000s AD.
The invention of the camera obscura is attributed to the Iraqi scientist Alhazen and described in his Book of Optics (1011-1021). English scientists Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke later invented a portable camera obscura in 1665-1666. In the 1500s many artists, including Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, used the camera obscura to help them draw pictures. This drawing below, made in 1652, shows an outer shell with lenses in the center of each wall and an inner shell with transparent paper for drawing. The artist entered by a trap door in the bottom.
In 1816 Frenchman Nicephore Niepce made a crude wood camera fitted with a microscope lens. He invented Heliography around 1826, which he used to make the earliest known permanent photograph from nature Louis Daguerre: Daguerreotype Louis Daguerre (1789 - 1851), in collaboration with Nicephore Niepce, invented the first practical photographic process in 1837 which was widely used in portraiture until the mid 1850s.
. Daguerre. A weak positive image produced by mercury vapor was fixed with a solution of salt. In 1839 the French government purchased Daguerre's French patent and offered the daguerreotype as "a gift free to the world".CONTINUATION A brass plate coated with silver was sensitized by exposure to iodine vapor and exposed to light in a camera for several minutes. however. did maintain control of the patent throughout the rest of the world.
the calotype. had the great advantage of allowing multiple copies to be made. . Current film-based photography is based on the same principle.HENRY FOX TALBOT . although producing an image inferior in quality to the daguerreotype.CALOTYPE In 1839 William Henry Fox Talbot presented a paper to the Royal Society of London describing his invention. This paper negative process.
Albums for the collection and display of cards became a common fixture in Victorian parlors. . They were usually an albumen print mounted onto card.CARTE DE VISITE Photographic "visiting cards" were invented by Andre Adolphe Eugene Disderi in 1854.
. was taken by Gaspard Felix Tournachon (aka Felix Nadar) in 1858.AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY The first aerial photograph showing the Place de l' Etoile. Dry Plate Photography Dr Richard Maddox discovered a method of using gelatin instead of glass as the plate material for the light-sensitive solution. It was shot from an altitude of 520 meters in a tethered balloon. Paris.
. new film was loaded. Eastman Kodak Camera 1888 George Eastman introduced celluloid based film in 1884.CONTINUATION This discovery led to the invention of dry plate photography. and the camera was returned ready-for-use to the owner. the camera was sent back to Kodak for film processing. Photography could now reach the masses: once the 100 shots on the camera had been taken. and the small portable easy-to-use box camera in 1888. a less cumbersome process that did not require the photographer to use a darkroom tent for immediate plate development as had been required by wet plate processes.
) . The fixed mirror deflects the light rays coming through the lens to a top screen. which is mounted on a common panel with the viewing lens. while the other is used for the waist-level viewfinder system. Inc.TWIN LENS REFLEX CAMERA The TLR camera has two objective lenses of the same focal length. which shows the image upright but laterally reversed. One of the lenses is the photographic objective (the lens that takes the picture). (1994 Encyclopaedia Brittanica. and is projected on the film. Light from the object also goes through the taking lens.
Oskar Barnack.RANGE FINDER CAMERA In 1913 a German design engineer. produced a prototype 35mm camera. . In 1924 the camera went into production at the Leitz factory in Germany. It was called the Leica from the initials of "LEItz CAmera".
the AsahiflexI.SINGLE LENS REFLEX FILM CAMERA Pentax Medium Format 6x7 SLR from the 1980s. Asahi's first model. making it the first Japanesebuilt 35mm SLR. Used 120/220 roll film and featured an electronically-timed focal plane shutter and interchangeable lenses and prisms. . went into production in 1952.
the Ihagee Kine Exakta. folding waist level finder and 12 to 1/1000th second focal plane shutter.CONTINUATION The historic Contax S (1949). the first pentaprism SLR for eye-level viewing. . produced in 1936. The first 35mm SLR. had a left-handed shutter release and rapid film wind thumb lever.
. the internal mirror set at a 45 degree angle reflects the light coming through the lens up at a 90 degree angle into a pentaprism where the image is inverted so it can be seen through the viewfinder the right way up. For viewing purposes.DIGITAL SINGLE LENS REFLEX CAMERA The basic operation of a DSLR is the same as a SLR.
. At the end of the exposure. the aperture stops down to the selected size. the mirror swings up. the mirror drops back into place. and the first shutter resets. a second shutter closes back over the sensor.CONTINUATION During an exposure. and the shutter opens exposing the electronic sensor placed on the focal plane to light.
. A photograph is basically a chemical process in which light is exposed to film. ISO. aperture and shutter speed.BEGINNERS GUIDELINES TO SIMPLE PHOTOGRAPHY There are 3 things that affect your image quality in photography. All 3 of these things depend on one other factor which is light. or a sensor in digital cameras. and registers an image.
The larger the number. Don’t be overwhelmed by the technical terms and numbers and things like that. and are represented by the numbers you see on the image. while an f-stop of f16 would be very small. Typically.4 would be very large. it will all start to make sense. The different aperture settings are called f-stops. When I first went over the module on this it was all gibberish to me. most consumer lenses have a range of f2 to f16. until I actually took some pictures trying all the different settings. That’s when it all made perfect sense. . so for example. once you try everything out on the actual camera.CONTINUATION There’s a device in the camera called the diaphragm. which is directly connected to aperture. the smaller the aperture. an f-stop of f1.
and a slower shutter speed will need a smaller aperture to prevent too much light from getting in. the less sensitive it is to light. the more sensitive it is to light. Depending on the ISO you are using. Shutter speed is always measured in seconds. The ISO is simply how sensitive the film. and at 1600 ISO. the picture is better. your shutter speed will have to be adjusted to allow the right amount of light for what you want to achieve. You can see from the photo. or censor in a digital camera. the picture is far too bright. the picture is quite dark. and the aperture set to f5. The lower the ISO is. Now. see the below image. shutter speed is how long the shutter is open to allow light into the camera. that at 100 ISO. while the ISO was changed. You see. The higher the ISO is. At 400 ISO.6. Each photo was taken at 1/250th of a second. is to light. To demonstrate the effect of ISO. . usually a faster shutter speed will require a larger aperture to allow enough light into the camera.
All light has a temperature in degrees Kelvin. The type of light will also change things. the faster your shutter speed can be. which also affects things. as it’s a little more advanced.The more light that is available. I won’t get into that yet. but that gets more complicated. .
It’s pretty simple. a fast shutter speed suddenly becomes a necessity most of the time. a shutter speed of 1/60th of a second is the slowest you can hand hold the camera before experiencing blur due to camera shake. the more sensitive the film/censor will be to the light. actually. . or a slow moving object. In the next image we see something new. The faster your shutter opens and closes. right? The correct answer is. If you are photographing a still object. If you are photographing a fast moving object. Now remember. called grain. So one might think it’s best to always use the highest ISO possible. the less you have to worry about a blurry image. let’s talk a little about why shutter speed is important.Now. For most people. the higher the ISO. sometimes. a fast shutter speed isn’t as important.
Most of the time. The first photo looks smoother. But even an amateur will sometimes get that one perfect shot they just would love to hang on their wall. the grainier your photo will look. one at 100 ISO and the other at 1600 ISO. ISO suddenly becomes very important. Grain is essentially how nice your photos look. Normal. so this doesn’t always matter. 400 ISO is best. the size of the enlargement will be limited before it starts to look bad. Unfortunately. or using a high ISO setting on a digital camera. if that perfect shot was taken with a high ISO film. It gets more complicated of course if you’re looking at it from a professional level. if you ever have a photograph you’d like to enlarge. grainy. and I may get into that another time. while the second looks. The higher the ISO. I find for the average every-day John and Jane Q. well. However. . you won’t be able to tell the difference in grain at standard print size of 4x6. Below I cropped just the face of an image. Most consumers won’t need to be making a lot of enlargements.
but no matter what lens or camera you have. Most likely. The further away something is. or behind the figurine would appear blurry. your eye was probably drawn first to the red box. the more infinite the focus can be. depth of field is essentially the area in front and behind the object that is in focus. the back round became less blurred the smaller the aperture. For example. Anything in front of. in the first frame. your eye is attracted to the figurine. and unobtrusive. the more limited the depth of field will be. you can focus on both the insect up close and mountains in the distance. In the second frame still focused on the figurine. This is because the back round is blurred. The closer it is. you can have the insect in focus. but a little distracted. .. The entire time I kept focused on the figurine. if taking a macro photo of a small insect. but both the shutter speed and aperture were changed. and when you look at the figurine. You can set things up however so that your depth of field is infinite (to a degree) and everything is sharp. the more limited that becomes. So as you can see from the pictures. you’re distracted by the box in the center. Each photo was taken with the same ISO. The closer something is. In the last frame. As you can see.
trial and error must be used for the beginner. fully manual film camera. . a telephoto lens will have a more sensitive depth of field. Depth of Field is probably the most confusing to beginners. It’s easiest to tackle this one factor by taking your camera out and just trying the different aperture settings and distances from objects. which will aid greatly in how all you photographs will look in the future. The biggest problem most beginners face is the ease of automatic features. while a wide angle lens will be less obvious. My 2 favorite manual cameras are the Pentax K1000 and the Canon AE-1 (But do not get the Canon AE-1 Program. The best thing to do is buy or rent an old. as it is largely automatic if you want it to be). but if not. For example. that will show you in the viewfinder how the depth of field will look. This is a very helpful function to have. Buying a fully manual camera forces you to learn these beginner concepts. because reading about it can be complicated. as there are many different factors that will affect your depth of field. Some cameras will have a depth of field preview button.
The settings for all these functions will be available on most digital cameras. You’ll have to consult your manual for help on where to find them and how to set them on your camera however. . it will have the right functions. not just SLR’s. Chances are if your camera is 3 megapixels and up.
Aperture Ring: The ring located on the outside of the lens. If the photographer changes the aperture. Aperture Priority Setting: An exposure setting taken with a camera where the photographer chooses the aperture setting and the camera sets the shutter speed for proper exposure.thereby determining how much light passes through to expose the film. usually behind the focusing ring. the camera automatically changes the shutter speed to match. It controls the size of the aperture opening.TERMINOLOGIES Aperture: The lens opening that changes in diameter. .
Automatic Setting or Program Exposure: An exposure setting where the camera sets both the aperture setting and shutter speed for proper . Autofocus (AF) System: A common system on SLR cameras where the camera lens automatically focuses the image using a selected part of the picture. shutter speed. Automatic Camera: A camera with a built-in exposure meter that automatically does the work of adjusting the aperture. or both for proper exposure. Auto Exposure Bracketing: A camera option that automatically sets the exposure of the film to varied shutter speeds and/or aperture settings.
or inserting it in a filter holder. External flashes are used for many things including increased flash range and red-eye reduction. Film: A photographic emulsion of an image that is fixed on a flexible. The filter gives different effects to the photographer's images. Bulb Setting: An exposure setting on SLR cameras labeled with a "B. The bulb setting is best used for photographing fireworks and other things that need a long exposure time. Filter: A colored or transparent round glass the size of a camera lens which a photographer attaches to the camera by either screwing it onto a lens." The bulb setting opens the shutter and keeps it open as long as you keep pressing the shutter release. depending on the type of filter. . transparent base. holding it in front of the lens. External flash: A supplementary flash unit attached to the camera.
Fixed-Focus Lens: A non-adjustable camera lens. F-Stop or F-Number: A number that indicates the size of the aperture lens opening such as f/1. f/5. Finder or Viewfinder: The area on the camera where the photographer views the subject area that will be recorded on the film. . f/4. the smaller the lens opening. F-stop determines your depth of field.4. which is set for a fixed distance. f/16.6. and f/22. intense burst of light from a bulb or flash unit. The larger the f-stop number. Flash: A brief.
Hot Shoe: The area on a camera that holds a small . such as 50mm. The distance is often listed in millimeters. Focal-Plane Shutter: The shutter system on cameras with a built-in lens. exposing the film.Focal Length: The distance. as marked on the lens. When the shutter is pressed an opaque curtain containing a slit moves directly across in front of the camera film. between the film and the optical center of the lens when the lens is focused on infinity. Focus: The act of adjusting the focus setting on a lens in order to sharply define the subject.
usually on the top. Internal Flash. . A flash integrated into the body of the camera.Image Stabilization or Vibration Reducing: A lens with an internal system to detect camera shake and compensate for it. Lens Hood or Shade: An attachment located at the front of a lens to keep unwanted light from striking the lens and causing image flare. Lens: Optical glass or a similar material that collects and focuses light to form an image on film.
It gives the photographer more freedom in choosing shutter speed and depth of field when composing. Macro Lens: A lens which changes the perspective to focus from an extremely close distance to infinity. Manual Focus: The process of setting the focus using the focus ring on the lens instead of using the camera's auto-focus system. Cameras often have an internal light meter but external light meters are more effective.Light Meter or Exposure Meter: An instrument that measures the light reflected from or falling on an object for proper exposure. Manual Setting: An exposure setting where the aperture setting and the shutter speed are both set by the photographer. .
Normal Lens: A lens that does not change the perspective of the image like a telephoto or wideangle lens. Shutter Blades: A movable cover in a lens that controls the aperture setting and the time when light reaches the film. . Reflector: Any device which reflects light onto a subject. Continuous mode is often used in Sports Photography. Motor Drive or Continuous Mode: An electronic mechanism that advances the film to the next frame and continues taking photographs.
Telephoto Lens: A lens which changes the perspective to make the object appear closer. If the photographer changes the shutter speed. the camera automatically changes the aperture to match. Shutter Priority: An exposure setting taken with a camera where the photographer chooses the shutter speed setting and the camera sets the aperture for proper exposure. Soft Focus Lens: A special lens that creates soft outlines in the image. Single-Lens-Reflex (SLR) Camera: A camera in which you view the scene through the same lens that takes the picture. .
The zoom. though. has a wide range of focal lengths. Tripod: A three-legged support that holds the camera steady. allowing the photographer to change the perspective from close in to far away. Unipod: A one-legged support that holds the camera steady. . Wide-Angle Lens: A lens which changes the perspective to make the objects appear in a wider field of view. Zoom: A lens which changes the perspective like a telephoto or wide-angle lens. Time Exposure: An exposure that takes seconds or minutes to complete.
both lighter and darker. Some SLR cameras have settings that allow automatic bracketing. to insure a correct exposure. Highlights: The brightest areas of a subject. . Film Speed: Your choice of film speed as reflected in an ISO number.EXPOSURE TERM Bracketing: The process of taking a series of photographs of the same subject through a range of exposures.
the less sensitive or "slower" the film. the more sensitive or "faster" the film. On an SLR camera the shutter speed can be adjusted. overly bright areas of a photograph due to too much light reaching the film. etc. The numbers represent either seconds or fractions of a second. 15 = 1/15 second. . Overexposure: The washed-out. the lower the number. Shutter Speed: The duration for which the aperture will remain open. 1 = 1 second. ISO Number: A rating of the film's sensitivity to light. The higher the number. 60 = 1/60 second. For example.
Underexposure: The muddy. Tone: . White Balance: A function on the camera that compensates for different colors of light being emitted by different light sources.The degree of lightness or darkness on a print. dark areas of a photograph due to too little light reaching the film.
Diffuse Lighting or Soft Lighting: Lighting that is low or moderate in contrast. Backlighting: The light coming from behind the subject. Existing Light: Any available light regardless of time of day and at any location. .LIGHTING TERMS Ambient Light: The natural. Bounce Lighting: Light that is bounced off a reflector to give the effect of ambient light. available light in a scene.
. often used when the subject is located in the dark shadow. Fill-In Light: Light added to the existing light by use of a lamp. Sidelighting: Light shining on the subject from the side relative to the camera. flash or reflector. often casting long shadows. Frontlighting: Light shining from the direction of the camera toward the subject.Fill Flash: A technique to brighten dark shadow areas.
EXAMPL ES .
AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY .
DRY PLATE .
WET PLATE ERA .
THE END!! .
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