Organizations & the need for management
 Organization – Two or more people who work

together in a structured way to achieve a specific goal or set of goals.  Goal - The purpose that an organization strives to achieve; organizations often have more than one goal; goals are fundamental elements of organizations.  Plan – Program or method for achieving goals.  Organizations must also acquire & allocate the resources necessary to achieve their goals.

organizing.  Manager – People responsible for directing the efforts aimed at helping organizations achieve their goals. leading & controlling the work of organization members & of using all available organizational resources to reach stated organizational goals. .Managing Organizations  Management – The process of planning.

3) Remembering the past – Everyday that we work with others adds to the history of the organization & to our own history.Why study Organizations & Management 1) Living in the present – organizations contribute to the present standards of living of people worldwide. .Organization build toward a desirable future & help individuals do the same. 2) Building the future .

.  Organizational Performance – The measure of how efficient & effective an organization is – how well it achieves appropriate objectives.Managerial & Organizational Performance  Managerial Performance – The measure of how efficient & effective a manager is – how well he or she determines & achieves appropriate objectives.

Efficiency & Effectiveness  Efficiency – The ability to minimize the use of resources in achieving organizational objectives: “doing things right”. .  Effectiveness – The ability to determine appropriate objectives: “doing the right thing”.

The Management Process Functions of Manager: 1) Planning 2) Organizing 3) Leading 4) Controlling .

.  Plans are guides by which:  The organization obtains & commits the resources required to reach its objectives.  Progress toward the objectives is monitored & measured so that corrective action can be taken if progress is unsatisfactory.Planning  The process of establishing goals & a suitable course of action for achieving those goals.  Members of the organization carry on activities consistent with the chosen objectives & procedures.

a process called organizational design. .Organizing  The process of engaging two or more people in working together in a structured way to achieve a specific goal or set of goals.  Staffing – Seeking new people to join the structure of relationships.  Managers must match an organization’s structure to its goals & resources.

.Leading  The process of directing & influencing the task- related activities of group members or an entire organization.  Managers lead in an attempt to persuade others to join them in pursuit of achieving goals.

 3 main elements:  Establishing standards of performance.Controlling  The process of ensuring that actual activities conform to planned activities.  Measuring current performance.  Taking corrective action if deviations are detected. .  Comparing this performance to the established standards.

I. II. receiving & disseminating information.Managerial Roles Interpersonal Roles – Roles that involve people (subordinates & persons outside the organization) & other duties that are ceremonial & symbolic in nature. . III. Decisional Roles – Involve making decisions & choices. Informational Roles – Involve collecting.

Performing virtually all activities that involve subordinates. Greeting Visitors. e. responsible for staffing..g. signing legal documents  Leader – Responsible for the motivation of subordinates.g. e. obliged to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature. training. & associated duties.Interpersonal Roles  Figurehead – Symbolic head.  Liaison – Maintains self-developed network of outside contacts & informers who provide favors & information ..

holding board meetings. making phone calls to relay information. policies. giving information .g.Informational Roles  Monitor – Seeks & receives wide variety of internal & external information to develop through understanding of organization & environment.g. e.g. etc.  Disseminator – Transmits information received from outsiders or from subordinates to members of the organization. maintaining personal contacts. results. e.  Spokesperson – Transmits information to outsiders on organization’s plans. e. holding informational meetings. Reading periodicals & reports. actions.

e. organizing strategy & review sessions that involve disturbances & crisis . unexpected disturbances. organizing strategy & review sessions to develop new programs.g.Decisional Roles  Entrepreneur – Searches organization & its environment for opportunities & initiates “improvement projects” to bring about changes. .g.  Disturbance handler – Responsible for corrective action when organization faces important. e.

performing any activity that involves budgeting & the programming of subordinates’ work.g.g.  Negotiator – Responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations. requesting authorization. participating in union contract negotiations. Resource Allocator – Responsible for the allocation of organizational resources of all kinds – making or approving all significant organizational decisions. e. . e. Scheduling.

Types of Managers  Management Levels  First – Line Managers  Middle Managers  Top Managers  Functional & General managers .

Managerial Levels .

they are the “first” or lowest level of managers in the organizational hierarchy.  Middle Managers – Managers in the midrange of the organizational hierarchy.  Top Managers – Managers responsible for the overall management of the organization.Management Levels  First – Line Managers – Managers who are responsible for the work of operating employees only & do not supervise other managers. they also report to more senior managers. they are responsible for other managers & sometimes for some operating employees. they establish operating policies & guide the .

such as production.  General Manager – The individual responsible for all functional activities. sales. marketing.Functional & General Managers  Functional Manager – A manger responsible for just one organizational activity. & finance for an organization. . such as finance or human resources management.

.Management Level & Sills  Technical Skill – The ability to use the procedures. understand.  Conceptual Skills – The ability to coordinate & integrate all of an organization’s interests & activities. & motivate other people as individuals or in groups. techniques. & knowledge of a specialized field.  Human Skill – The ability to work with.

Skills Needed at Different Management Levels .

The Challenge of Management 1) The need for vision 2) The need for ethics 3) The need for responsiveness to Cultural Diversity .