TIDAL AND WAVE ENERGY

PRESENTED BY, GROUP 4

TIDAL ENERGY

Tides are generated through a combination of forces exerted by the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon and the rotation of the earth. The relative motion of the three bodies produces different tidal cycles which affect the range of the tides.

• Energy can be extracted from tides by creating a reservoir or basin behind a barrage and then passing tidal waters through turbines in the barrage to generate electricity.

• Tidal energy is extremely site specific requires mean tidal differences greater than 4 meters and also favorable topographical conditions, such as estuaries or certain types of bays in order to bring down costs of dams etc.

tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. • Among sources of renewable energy. .• Although not yet widely used. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. thus constricting its total availability. tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities.

tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e. many recent technological developments and improvements. indicate that the total availability of tidal power may be much higher than previously assumed.g. both in design (e. new axial turbines.g. dynamic tidal power.However. . and that economic and environmental costs may be brought down to competitive levels. cross flow turbines).

PROCESS OF ENERGY GENERATION .

Tidal power has great potential for future power and electricity generation because of the massive size of the oceans. These large underwater turbines are placed in areas with high tidal movements. and are designed to capture the kinetic motion of the ebbing and surging of ocean tides in order to produce electricity. .• Tidal energy is produced through the use of tidal energy generators.

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Because the Earth’s tides are caused by the tidal forces due to gravitational interaction with the Moon and Sun. and the Earth’s rotation. . tidal power is practically inexhaustible and classified as a renewable energy source.

IMPORTANT PROJECTS .

The next phase in the development of this tidal current generator will be in Nova Scotia.• The first in-stream tidal current generator in North America (Race Rocks Tidal Power Demonstration Project) was installed at Race Rocks on southern Vancouver Island in September 2006. .

• However. • Smaller tidal power plant have been built in Canada. potential global tidal power exceeds 450 terawatts.• Only a few tidal energy sites are in operation around the world. and several in Norway. Larger sites include the White Sea in Russia and the Rance River in France (the largest site in the world). Together they have a total capacity of less than 250 MW. such as the site at Annapolis Royal in Nova Scotia. the potential for tidal energy is immense. most of it in Asia and North America .

ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES .

 The efficiency of tidal power. . Tidal forces have their origin in the gravitational interaction with the Moon and Sun. meaning that we could harness tidal power as long as Moon and Sun continue to exist. Tidal power belongs to the most efficient energy sources by having efficiency of approximately 80%. this is much better efficiency as compared to other more popular renewable energy sources such as solar and wind.ADVANTAGES  Tidal power belongs to renewable energy sources meaning it cannot be depleted like fossil fuels can.

. and this predictability is also one of the advantages that tidal power has over other energy sources because rise and fall of tides are much more cyclic than random weather patterns.  Tidal power on larger scale could even lead to reduced import of foreign fuels and improve our energy security because we wouldn't have to rely so much on expensive foreign fuel import to satisfy our growing energy demand. Tides are predictable. This predictability gives us knowledge when the tides will be in and out.

• Barrages and small dams used to harness tidal power could protect coastal areas or ship ports from dangerous tides during a stormy weather .

. This means that in order for tidal power to be considered as a reliable source of energy needs to be accompanied with some effective energy storage solution. and therefore lack cost-competitiveness on global energy market.DISADVANTAGES  Tidal power plants are connected with high upfront costs needed for construction.  Tidal power is intermittent source of energy that can only produce electricity during tidal surges which is in average around 10 hours each day.

Also. Tidal power plants could lead to environmental damage in some cases as the frames of the turbines have potential to disrupt the movement of large marine animals. the construction of tidal power plant can disrupt fish migration in the oceans. . limited in real life to just a few prototype projects because technology has just started developing and needs big funds and plenty of scientific research before reaching the commercial character.  Still more a theoretic source of energy.

SUITABLITY TO INDIA .

. • A British tidal energy company. Atlantis Resources. its potential to harness tidal energy has been recognized by the Government of India.• Since India is surrounded by sea on three sides. is expected to set up a tidal power plant with the capacity to generate over 250 MW in the Gulf of Kutch or Khambhat.

the world’s largest mangrove. • The Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Cambay in Gujarat and Gangs delta in the Sunder bans.• India’s first attempt to harness tidal power for generating electricity would be in the form of a three MW plant proposed at the Durgaduani creek in Sundarbans delta of West Bengal. . are the three sites identified as potential areas for tidal power generation.

WAVE ENERGY .

• Waves are caused by wind blowing on the surface of the water. • Wave power systems convert the motion of the waves into usable mechanical energy which in lump can be used to generate electricity.INTRODUCTION • Wave energy is captured directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface. .

.• In 2008. the first experimental wave farm was opened in Portugal. • Waves are a powerful source of energy. at the Aguçadoura Wave Park. • Ocean waves are caused by the wind as it blows across the sea. The problem is that it's not easy to harness this energy and convert it into electricity in large amounts. wave power stations are rare. • Thus.

PROCESS OF ENERGY GENERATION .

• Wave energy is produced when electricity generators are placed on the surface of the ocean. . wave speed. power plants and water pumps. Energy output is determined by wave height. and water density. wavelength. The energy provided is most often used in desalination plants. To date there are only a handful of experimental wave generator plants in operation around the world.

• At a wave power station. air is blown in and out of a chamber beside the pool. • One of them works like a swimming pool wave machine in reverse. which means that air is forced in and out of the hole in the top of the chamber. causing waves. . • At a swimming pool. which makes the water outside bob up and down.WAVE ENERGY TECHNIQUES … • There are several methods of getting energy from waves. the waves arriving cause the water in the chamber to rise and fall.

unless a silencer is fitted to the turbine. • The noise is not a huge problem anyway. • A problem with this design is that the rushing air can be very noisy.• We place a turbine in this hole. as the waves make quite a bit of noise themselves . • The turbine turns a generator. which is turned by the air rushing in and out.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES .

in some places in the world. Unlike fossil fuels. There will always be waves crashing upon the shores of nations. The energy from waves can be taken directly into electricity-producing machinery and used to power generators and power plants nearby . just as quickly as people can discover them. The waves flow back from the shore. but they always return. • Environment Friendly: Also unlike fossil fuels.ADVANTAGES WAVE ENERGY • Renewable: The best thing about wave energy is that it will never run out. waste. creating power from waves creates no harmful byproducts such as gas. near the populated coastal regions. which are running out. and pollution.

Coastal cities tend to be wellpopulated. • Easily Predictable : The biggest advantages of wave power as against most of the other alternative energy sources is that it is easily predictable and can be used to calculate the amount that it can produce. . so lots of people can get use from wave energy plants.• Abundant and Widely Available :Another benefit to using this energy is its nearness to places that can use it. Lots of big cities and harbors are next to the ocean and can harness the power of the waves for their use. The wave energy is consistent and proves much better than other sources which are dependent on wind or sun exposure.

wave power does not cause any damage to earth. • No Damage to Land : Unlike fossil fuels which cause massive damage to land as they can leave large holes while extracting energy from them . Not only it will help to curb air pollution but can also provide green jobs to millions of people. It is safe.• Less Dependency on Foreign Oil Cos : Dependence on foreign companies for fossil fuels can be reduced if energy from wave power can be extracted up to its maximum. . clean and one of the preferred method to extract energy from ocean.

• Source of Disturbance for Private and Commercial Vessels : it disturbs commercial and private vessels. .Disadvantages • Suitable to Certain Locations : The biggest disadvantage to getting your energy from the waves is location. Only power plants and towns near the ocean will benefit directly from it. wave energy is not a viable power source for everyone. Landlocked nations and cities far from the sea have to find alternate sources of power. Because of its source. so wave energy is not the clean energy solution for everyone.

These machines disturb the seafloor. it still creates hazards for some of the creatures near it. Large machines have to be put near and in the water to gather energy from the waves. change the habitat of near-shore creatures (like crabs and starfish) and create noise that disturbs the sea life around them.• Effect on marine Ecosystem : As clean as wave energy is. • Weak Performance in Rough Weather : The performance of wave power drops significantly during rough weather. They must withstand rough weather. There is also a danger of toxic chemicals that are used on wave energy platforms spilling and polluting the water near them. .

wave length. They require a consistent flow of powerful waves to generate significant amount of wave power. wavelength and water density. . They also generate noise pollution but the noise is often covered by the noise of waves which is much more than that of wave generators. • Wavelength : Wind power is highly dependent on wavelength i. They look like large machines working in the middle of the ocean and destroy the beauty of the ocean.• Noise and Visual pollution : Wave energy generators may be unpleasant for some who live close to coastal regions. Some areas experience unreliable wave behavior and it becomes unpredictable to forecast accurate wave power and therefore cannot be trusted as reliable energy source.e. wave speed.

IMPORTANT PROJECTS .

Several generators can be combined into groups. The research area is situated on the west coast of Sweden. .Wave Power Project . • The concept is based on a system of unique piston driven generators. some 20-100 m beneath the surface and can further be combined into groups using standard cables on the seabed. about 1 nautical mile (2 km) west of the Islandsberg peninsula in the municipality of Lysekil .Lysekil • The goal of the Wave Power Project Lysekil is to test a new concept to generate electricity from the motions of sea waves under realistic circumstances and over a longer period of time. A so-called linear generator is standing protected on the seabed and is driven. by a buoy on the surface. via a rope.

the generated alternating power is converted into direct current. which is then brought to land by means of standard cables and connected to the power grid through a DC/AC converter. rope and generator is expected to be cheap. and to be able to cope with the extreme conditions at sea.• With the help of power electronics. environmentally benign. sturdy. . This system with buoy.

WAVE ENERGY IN INDIA .

Madras in 1982. • Primary estimates indicate that the annual wave energy potential along the Indian coast is between 5 MW to 15 MW per meter. Indian Institute of Technology.• In India the research and development activity for exploring wave energy started at the Ocean Engineering Centre. .

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