KINEMATICS OF CAM

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CAM
• Definition- Cam is a mechanical member used for transmitting desired motion to a follower by direct contact. Cam may be rotating, reciprocating or oscillating where as the follower may be reciprocating or oscillating. Complicated output motions which are otherwise difficult to achieve can be easily produced with the help of cam The cam and follower have line or point contact and coming under higher pair Application: IC engine, automatic machines, machine tools,paper cutting machine & textile machine Necessary elements of cam mechanism are: Cam: The driving member is known as cam Follower: The driven member is known as follower Frame: It supports the cam and guides the follower

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Examples for cam • In IC engines to operate the inlet and exhaust valves .

Classification of Cams Cams are classified according to : • (a) Shape • (b) Follower movement • (c) manner of constraint of the follower 4 .

Radial or Disc Cams 5. Positive Drive Cam 2. Gravity Drive Cam 5 . Rise-return-rise (RRR) 3. Spiral Cams 6. Dwell-rise-dwell (DRD) (c)According manner of constraint of the follower 1. Wedge and Flat Cams 4. Cylindrical Cams 7. Dwell-rise-dwell-return-Dwell (DRDRD) 2. Globoidal Cams (b)According to Follower movement 1.(a)According to Shape 1. Conjugate Cams 3. Dwell Rise-return Dwell (DRRD) 4. Spherical Cams 2. Pre-loaded Spring Cam 3.

Wedge and Flat Cams 2.(a)According to Shape 1. Radial or disc cams 6 .

3. Spiral Cams 4. Conjugate Cams 7 . Cylindrical Cams 5.

6. Globoidal Cams 7.Spherical cams 8 .

(b)According to Follower movement 1. Dwell-rise-dwell (DRD) 9 . Dwell-rise-dwell-return-Dwell (DRDRD) 4. Rise-return-rise (RRR) 2. Dwell Rise-return Dwell (DRRD) 3.

Pre-loaded Spring Cam 2.Gravity Drive Cam 10 .(c)According manner of constraint of the follower 1.

3. Positive-drive cam 11 .

Types of Follower Cams are classified according to : (a) Shape (b) movement (c) location of line of movement 12 .

mushroom follower (b)According to movement 1. offset follower 13 . Reciprocating follower 2. oscillating follower (c)According to location of line of movement 1.Knife edge follower 2.(a)According to Shape 1. Radial follower 2. roller follower 3.

Knife-edge Follower 2. Flat or Mushroom Follower 14 .(a) according to shape: 1. Roller Follower 3.

(b) according to movement 1. Reciprocating follower 2. oscillating follower 15 .

(c) according to location of line of movement 1. offset follower 16 . Radial follower 2.

Radial cam nomenclature Follower Pressure angle() (maximum) Trace point 17 .

Radial cam nomenclature Follower Pressure angle() (maximum) Trace point 18 .

centre of roller is the tracing point. In roller follower. For the purpose of drawing cam profile. Cam profile Surface of cam which comes into contact with follower is known as cam profile 2. 19 . Prime circle The smallest circle drawn tangent to the pitch curve. Trace point It is reference point of follower to trace the cam profile. 4. it is assumed that cam is fixed and the follower rotates around it. Base circle Smallest circle that can be drawn to the cam profile. Pitch curve Locus of path of tracing point. 1.Terminology of a radial cam with reciprocating follower is shown. 5. Radius of base circle known as least radius of cam 3. In knife edge follower knife edge itself is tracing point.

7. It represent steepness of cam profile. Cam angle It is the angle of rotation of cam for a defined displacement of follower 10. Pressure angle () It is angle between the direction of follower motion and a normal to the pitch curve. Pitch circle It is the circle passing through the pitch point and concentric with base circle. This angle is very important. 9.6. Pitch point It is the point on the pitch curve at which the pressure angle is maximum 8. Also called as throw of the cam 20 . Lift or stroke It is the maximum displacement of the follower from the base circle of the cam.

Follower displacement (h) Angle of cam rotation () ((one full rotation 3600 )) • • • It represents angular displacement of cam and represents the corresponding angular or linear displacement of follower from its initial position X-axis  displacement of cam 21 Y-axis  displacement of follower .Displacement Diagram • Movement of the trace point against the rotation of cam through an angle  is called “displacement diagram”.

2.1. Angle of ascent (or) out stroke angle (or) rise (0) Angle of rotation of cam from the position when follower begins to rise till it reaches its highest position. Angle of action It is the total angle moved by the cam during its rotation. 22 . between the beginning of rise of follower and end of return of follower. Angle of descent (or) return stroke angle (or) fall (R) It is angle through which the cam rotates during the time the follower return to initial position 4. Angle of dwell(d) It is angle through which the cam rotates while follower remains stationary at the highest or lowest position. 3.

Displacement Diagram for follower motion • Motion of the follower  During its travel follower may have one of the following motion 1. Uniform velocity motion 2. Cycloidal motion 23 . Simple harmonic motion (SHM) 3. Uniform acceleration and retardation (or) parabolic motion 4.

Velocity .1. a=0 (∵constant velocity). the slope of the displacement curve must be constant. v= constant • • Acceleration. Uniform velocity motion • The follower moves with uniform velocity during its rise and fall. a=dv/dt =0 24 .

h 25 . its projection on the diameter will have simple harmonic motion. Simple harmonic motion (SHM) • When a body rotates on a circular path with uniform angular velocity.2.

Uniform acceleration and retardation (or) parabolic motion • There is a acceleration in the first half of follower motion where it is deceleration during second half. 26 .3.

27 . Cycloidal motion • h There is a acceleration in the first half of follower motion where it is deceleration during second half.4.

4. Cycloidal motion h 28 .