Enzymes

Diagram of Energy Difference Between Reactants and Products

• The uncatalyzed reaction has a large activation energy, Ea, seen at left • In the catalyzed reaction, the activation energy has been lowered significantly increasing the rate of the reaction

• An enzyme’s activity is limited to a certain substrate and a certain type of reaction. We call this the specificity of the enzyme.

• Specificity is determined by the active site.

Enzyme Active Site
• Amino acid side chains interact, metal ions, • Various types of polar, non-polar, ionic interactions

Enzymes
• Lock and Key Analogy: lock = enzyme, key = substrate.

Enzymes
• Lock and Key Analogy: lock = enzyme, key = substrate.

Induced Fit Theory
• Enzyme is not rigid, changes shape with substrate.

Induced Fit Theory
• Enzyme is not rigid, changes shape with substrate.

Enzymes - Cofactors
• Coenzymes (contain a vitamin) or metal ion

Enzymes - Cofactors
• Metal ions present in trace amounts

Enzymes - Cofactors
• Metal ions present in trace amounts

Enzyme Cofactors
• Coenzyme - non protein organic, may be a vitamin.

Enzyme Cofactors
• Coenzyme - non protein organic, maybe a vitamin.

Enzyme Cofactors
• Coenzyme - non protein organic, maybe a vitamin.

Enzymes

Enzymes - Activity
• Temperature and pH effect enzyme action

Enzymes - Activity
• Temperature and pH effect enzyme action

Enzymes - Activity
• Enzyme and substrate concentrations

Enzymes - Inhibitors
• Nonspecific - denaturation, pH, temperature

Enzyme Inhibitors
• Noncompetitive

Enzyme Inhibitors
• Competive - mimic substrate, may block active site, but may dislodge it.

Enzyme Inhibitors
• Competive - mimic substrate, may block active site, but may dislodge it.

Enzyme Inhibitors

Enzyme Inhibitors
• Irreversible - covalently binds to active site

Enzyme Inhibitors
• Regulator or feedback - used to control a sequence of reactions - reaction product may block initial enzyme.

Enzyme Inhibitors
• Regulator or feedback - used to control a sequence of reactions - reaction product may block initial enzyme.

Enzyme Inhibitors

Enzyme Inhibitors

Drugs as Enzyme Inhibitors
• Drug mimics some natural chemical to block enzyme.

Drugs as Enzyme Inhibitors
• Drug mimics some natural chemical to block enzyme.