Process Mapping

© 2001 ConceptFlow

1

Module Objectives
By the end of this module, the participant should be able to: • Discuss the need for process mapping • Apply various types of process maps in a project • Discuss how flow charts and other charts are used to map a process • Prepare a detailed Process Map

© 2001 ConceptFlow

2

Why Are Process Maps Used?
• • • • • • • Document the actual process Show the relationship of process steps or Y = f(X) Identify the location and quantity of defects Locate value added and non-value added steps of a process Lead to improvement “next steps” Communicate information Train employees on the process

© 2001 ConceptFlow

3

What Is A Process Map? • What will a process map identify? • When do you apply the process mapping tool? • What are the results of mapping a process? Detailed mapping can be used on ANY process and is a LIVING document © 2001 ConceptFlow 4 .

. What It Actually Is.. What You Would Like It To Be...Versions Of A Process At Least Three Versions What You Think It Is.. © 2001 ConceptFlow 5 ..

S&C $$$ Should-Be = Process Entitlement Could-Be = Breakthrough State Improvement Period Time © 2001 ConceptFlow 6 .Relating The Versions Of Process Maps To Levels Of Performance Q: Quick Breakthrough Defects and Waste S: Simple C: Easy As-Is = Current State Q.

Service Dept. Detailed Subprocess © 2001 ConceptFlow 7 .) Clients (int.Levels Of A Process Business Process (“Strategic”) Business Processes Sales Business Development Core Functional Departments Contracting Client Service Underwriting Sub-process High Level Process Map Supplier Underwriters Terms Terms Docs Negotiate Close Client Detailed Sub-Process Map Tasks Procedures (ext.) Cust.

Process. Clients © 2001 ConceptFlow 8 .The Top Level Process Map The top level process map should describe: • Major tasks and activities • Sub-processes • What are the boundaries of the process • What are the process output variables (POV) • Who receives the outputs (clients) • What does the client require of the outputs • What are the process input variables (PIV) • Who supplies the inputs (suppliers) • What does the process require of the inputs SIPOC: Supplier.SIPOC . Inputs. Outputs.

SIPOC Benefits • Documents a process as it moves from suppliers’ parts to clients’ product/service • Includes information: • necessary to balance competing client requirements • identify “gaps” • verify team and information resource requirements • Helps drive Process Owners to use the right metrics and verify them continuously with the clients and suppliers © 2001 ConceptFlow 9 .

Basic Structure Of SIPOC Requirements Requirements S Suppliers I Inputs Input Boundary P Process O Outputs Output Boundary C Clients High Level Process Map also known as SIPOC © 2001 ConceptFlow 10 .

Documenting A Process From Suppliers To Clients • The SIPOC form is used to: • Identify and balance competing client requirements • Identify gaps in requirements for the process outputs or inputs • Identify suppliers of the process inputs • Help in identification of data collection needs • Verify team and information resource requirements • Target the right metrics and as a tool to continuously verify client requirements © 2001 ConceptFlow 11 .

SIPOC Form Guide .Excel Version S Suppliers I Inputs P Process ( Top level description of activity) Requirements 8 O Outputs (Deliverables from the process) C Clients (Anyone who receives a deliverable from the process) Requirements (Providers of (Resources the required required by resources) the process) 7 Who is the supplier of each input? What does the process expect from each input? Boundary 2 When does The Process start? 5 What does each client expect from each output? 3 What are the outputs from the process? 6 What Inputs are required to enable this process to occur? 1 What is the process? 4 Who is the client of each output? 2 When does the process end? Boundary © 2001 ConceptFlow 12 .

times. dates. Credit Card Company Travel Itinerary Traveler Payment Method Address. Author. mail and/or email Traveler Revenue Profit Margin Electronic Communication Daily Billings © 2001 ConceptFlow 13 .Airline Reservation SIPOC Example Occurs before process starts Suppliers (Providers of the required resources) After process ends Process (Top level description of activity) Inputs (Resources required by the process) Outputs (Deliverables from the process) Clients (Anyone who receives a deliverable from the process) Requirements Client Request for Travel Company Travel Authorization Availability Request For Reservation Travel Information Dates Travel Approval Code Initiates Reservation Company Profile. Traveler Profile. seat. carrier. Code Departure and Arrival Cities. Date. special requests Zero Defects Business/ Corporate Traveler Business/ Corporate Traveler Biggest Client Company Time to Process Traveler Company Travel Agency Traveler Cost Carrying Cost Company Business/ Corporate Traveler Business/ Corporate Traveler Travel Agent and Carrier Company Acct Rec. Times Current Credit Card w/available credit limit Correct Airline Reservation Ticket or E-ticket Booking a Business Airline Reservation Customer Request For Travel Service Requirements Professional and Courteous Less Than 10 Minutes Low to Moderate Cost Low to Moderate Cost Mail/email.

how would you verify the requirements are client driven? • What clients or client segments should be given priority? © 2001 ConceptFlow 14 .Comparing The CT Tree To The Top-Level Process Outputs • A SIPOC of this nature would typically be done by the travel agency • VOC: do the outputs of the product or service meet client requirements? • How well aligned are the outputs and requirements to the client CT’s? • If this were your process.

But within our control Quality of Service Validate perceptions with data collected on the Y’s © 2001 ConceptFlow Delivery of Service and Information 15 .Assimilating The VOC Information List verbatims Critical Incidents (VOC) CTS issues Client Requirements • Cost of tickets • Cost of service • Professional and courteous service • Accuracy of charges • Itineraries correct • Tickets correct • Time to process < 10 minutes • Itineraries/E-tickets emailed within the hour • Daily updates of corporate travel account Gap #1 Cost Perhaps gap #2.

if necessary © 2001 ConceptFlow 16 .Steps For Performing The Gap Analysis • Collected incidents should be grouped in accordance with the CT’s • Accounting for any adjustments to the SIPOC • What requirements are being met? • What requirements are not being met? • Where are the perceived gaps in the process? • Validate gaps with data • Can you prioritize the efforts? • Should the project be re-scoped to focus on one or two of the efforts? • Discuss with Champion/process owner • Revise project definition.

times. dates. Code Departure and Arrival Cities. Times Current Credit Card w/available credit limit Correct Airline Reservation Ticket or E-ticket Booking a Business Airline Reservation Customer Request For Travel Service Requirements Professional and Courteous Less Than 10 Minutes Low to Moderate Cost Low to Moderate Cost Mail/email. Traveler Profile. seat. carrier. special requests Zero Defects Business/ Corporate Traveler Business/ Corporate Traveler Biggest Client Company Time to Process Traveler Company Travel Agency Traveler Cost Carrying Cost Company Business/ Corporate Traveler Business/ Corporate Traveler Travel Agent and Carrier Company Acct Rec. mail and/or email Traveler Revenue Profit Margin Electronic Communication Daily Billings © 2001 ConceptFlow 17 . Date.Highlighting The Gaps Also recognize that some of the issues may be related to the process inputs Suppliers (Providers of the required resources) Inputs (Resources required by the process) Process (Top level description of activity) Outputs (Deliverables from the process) Clients (Anyone who receives a deliverable from the process) Requirements Client Request for Travel Company Travel Authorization Availability Request For Reservation Travel Information Dates Travel Approval Code Initiates Reservation Company Profile. Credit Card Company Travel Itinerary Traveler Payment Method Address. Author.

Data Collection To Validate The Gaps • Current data availability? …Data collection required? • Establish the baseline before committing to goals Internal Process. Efficiency Measures Aimed at internal efficiency metrics: • Value • Cycle time • Cost • Resources Effectiveness or Output Measures Output measures aligned with CTS’s Input Measures Is the gap associated with the requirements on the inputs? © 2001 ConceptFlow 18 .

Prioritizing Project Focus/Efforts • Having quantified the baseline performance and conducted a gap analysis: • Which gaps/issues should be addressed first? • Should the project consist of resolving all of the gaps? • Can the project be phased into two or more projects? • For the same Black Belt? • Should additional Black Belt resources be assigned? • Discussions with Champion/Process Owner required © 2001 ConceptFlow 19 .

Your Project SIPOC’s • Class Discussion: • In your teams. flipchart a list of how the SIPOC tool assisted you with your project • What are the benefits? © 2001 ConceptFlow 20 .

Detailed Process Mapping © 2001 ConceptFlow 21 .

S  Phone/Web Travel Information. S Agent N Traveler N Computer Systems. S Operator input. N Preference for Carrier. Code   Agency Request Entered  Correct Traveler Information Traveler Information Verification          Updated Profile Information Correct         Correct Traveler Billing Info Into System Gather Customer Billing Info Client name. S  Times. SN Operator input. S Overnight. S  Dates. N Measurement Systems. N  Travel Info Entered Into Saber Enter Travel Information Into Saber Carrier Search  Service. Date. N Measurement Systems. S Operator input. CN Size. N N Auth. N Agent N Computer Systems. S Expir. N Agency Resources  day time. N    Company Policy. CN Operator or admin. CN Card Approved Credit System. S Traveler. N Traveler Input. S Button. N         Depart City. S Restrictions if applicable. N Measurement Systems. S Operator input. S Operator.S Traveler/Designee. S Company Info. SN Computer Systems. S   Saber System.N         Traveler Info. S Auth. S Destin City. S Agent N Traveler N Computer Systems. S Preferences. S Traveler input. N Other Personnel? Form Procedure S Travel Information N  Need For Travel Complete Travel Authorization Authorization Form. N Computer Systems. S  Traveler Input. S Operator. S Operator input. S Agent N Traveler N Computer Systems. S Weight. N Measurement Systems. S Operator input. S (seat. S Operator.N Location Variation. CS Internet Connect. S         Service Options Determined  Lowest Cost Enter Travel Preferences Into Saber        Frequent Flyer Programs. S Travel Budget C Cost Estimate S Computer Systems. N Saber Program. SN  after hours. N  Reservation Booked Reservation Booking E-ticket or Paper No Yes Email Verification    Operator. N Measurement Systems. S Computer System S Measurement Systems? Print tickets & Itinerary   Printer. S Company Policy. S  Confirm Arrangements w/ Traveler     Courier Selected Delivery Method Selection Mail. S Call time End Call Email Itinerary  Traveler Input Confirm Arrangements  Generate Saber E-ticket Itinerary Screen Copy.. CN Ticket Machine. S Travel Authorization S Traverl Input N Saber. C Operator input. N Measurement Systems. S   Address Verified Profile Updated Address Verification     Agent N Traveler N Computer Systems Measurement Systems  Itinerary Copied S: Standard Operating Procedures N: Noise  Package For Outgoing Mail      Meter. S Name on Card. S  Domestic  International  Traveler  Approver Website. class) Agent N Traveler N Computer Systems. N Viable Alternatives. S Courier. S Traveler N Location Variation. C Packaging. S   Request Entered Into Saber System Confirmation # Request for Reservation Acceptable Cost? Flag discrepancy to Company Policy Acceptable Arrangements?    Traveler input. S Computer System N VA: Value Added BVA: Business Value Added NVA: Non-Vale Added C: Controllable Payment Processing         Profile Match. N  Cost. N Traveler N Destination Customer. S © 2001 ConceptFlow 22 . S Charge No. S Time In Queue  Time in VRU  Call Volume  Peak Hours Y     Rationale. Code.Airline Reservation Process Map   Authorized Travel Auth. S Dates of Travel. S Saber updates. S Location. Code?  Travel Request Complete Travel Request Form         Request Form. S    Email Address. S  Credit Card #.N      Contact Agency Contact Service. S SNAP      Real time Saber system. SN Computer Service.

Storage (Yellow) . Transport or Movement of Material (Yellow) © 2001 ConceptFlow BK1-2PROCESS MAP 23 .Handling.Detailed Process Mapping Symbols .Process Step or Operation (White) .Delay (Red) .Measurement.Decision (Blue) . or Inspection (Yellow) . Quality Check.

Basic Structure Scrap Bad Bad Good • • • • • How many Process or Operation Steps are there? How many Decision Points? How many Measurement/Inspection Points? Where are the Bottlenecks? How many Re-work Loops? Warehouse Good © 2001 ConceptFlow 24 .

What Level Of Magnification Is Required? • Document the overall flow of the process between the start and stop boundaries • When do we zoom in to map every process step? • What is a process step? • Continuous flow • Stops when flow is disrupted or disconnected • Has its own process output variable (POV) • Also known as a little y(s) • Multiple steps can merge • Often defined in process operating documentation Stay as high as you can. for as long as you can © 2001 ConceptFlow 25 .

which would impact client satisfaction Business-Value Added • Any activity. given a choice. if you left it out. the client is willing to pay for • Includes those activities that are required by contract or law • Anything.Definitions Value Added • A step in an industrial or business process that. when left out. when left out. that does not directly impact the client and may incur no dissatisfaction • These steps may be necessary to support value added steps • Any activity required by the business Non-Value Added • Any activity. that does not directly impact the client and may incur no dissatisfaction © 2001 ConceptFlow 26 .

List inputs and classify input variables 5. Complete High Level Process Map (SIPOC) 2. cycle time.Process Mapping Steps 1. defect/yield data. inventory and all rework loops 3. Identify all steps in the process. Add operating specifications and process targets for the controllable input variables 5 Easy Steps © 2001 ConceptFlow 27 . including value added and non-valueadded. Determine outputs at each step (process and product) 4.

Why List The Inputs And Outputs? • • • • • • Xs are sources of variation Variation causes defects Xs must be under control to prevent defects Root cause of defects is the variation of Xs Ys are outputs of processes and include failure modes of processes Defects are also outputs of a process step To identify sources of variation and reduce defects! © 2001 ConceptFlow 28 .

Input Classifications • Controllable Inputs (C) • Can be changed • Sometimes called “Knob” Variables • Noise Inputs (N) • Difficult or impossible to control or choose not to • Standard Operating Procedures (S) • Procedure for running process • Critical Inputs (X) • X’s that have been statistically proven to impact the process Y(s) © 2001 ConceptFlow 29 .

Step 1 Example: “Pasta” High Level SIPOC Map Pasta High Level Process Map Suppliers Restaurant Owner Grocery Store Input Raw Pasta Pan H2O Cup Stove Spoon Salt Oil Cooking Pasta Output Cooked Pasta Clients Patrons Owner Cook © 2001 ConceptFlow 30 .

salt & oil Boil Water Add Pasta Cook Pasta Done? Yes Output Cooked Pasta Add cycle time.Step 2 Example: Identify All Process Steps Pasta Process Map Designate steps as value-added or non-value-added Rework .01 DPU .25 MINUTE 9 MINUTES No Input Raw Pasta Pan H2O Stove Spoon Salt Oil Add water. defect/yield data and ALL rework loops © 2001 ConceptFlow 31 .5 MINUTE 6 MINUTES .

01 DPU No .Step 3 Example: Determine Outputs For Each Step Pasta Process Map Rework .5 MINUTE 6 MINUTES . salt & oil Boil Water Add Pasta Cook Pasta Done? Yes Output Cooked Pasta Boiling Water Water Remaining Steam Properly Cooked What are the outputs for the other steps? © 2001 ConceptFlow 32 .25 MINUTE 9 MINUTES Input Raw Pasta Pan H2O Stove Spoon Salt Oil Add water.

5 MINUTE 6 MINUTES . of Oil Lid or Not Altitude Ambient Temp Time Minerals in H2O Pan Material Pan Size Pan Condition Boiling Instructions BTUs Add Pasta Boiling Water Water Remaining Steam Cook Pasta Done? Yes Output Cooked Pasta Time Lid or Not Type of Pasta Amount of Pasta Altitude Ambient Temp Cooking instructions Properly Cooked © 2001 ConceptFlow 33 . salt & oil Boil Water Amt. of Salt Amt.Step 4a Example: List Inputs For Each Step Pasta Process Map Rework .25 MINUTE 9 MINUTES Input Raw Pasta Pan H2O Stove Spoon Salt Oil Add water.01 DPU No .

of Oil C Lid or Not Steam C Lid or Not N Altitude N Ambient Temp N Time N Minerals in H2O C Pan Material C Pan Size C Pan Condition S Boiling Instructions C BTUs C Type of Pasta C Amount of Pasta N Altitude N Ambient Temp S Cooking instructions Key C .SOP N .01 DPU No .Controllable S . salt & oil Boil Water Add Pasta Cook Pasta Done? Yes Output Cooked Pasta Boiling Water Properly Cooked C Amt. of Salt Water Remaining C Time C Amt.25 MINUTE 9 MINUTES Input Raw Pasta Pan H2O Stove Spoon Salt Oil Add water.Step 4b Example: Classify Input Variables Pasta Process Map Rework .5 MINUTE 6 MINUTES .Noise © 2001 ConceptFlow 34 .

25 MINUTE 9 MINUTES Input Raw Pasta Pan H2O Stove Spoon Salt Oil Add water.Noise 35 .01 DPU No . of Oil C Lid or Not Steam Controllable Input Variable Time (minutes) Amount of Pasta (ounces) © 2001 ConceptFlow C Lid or Not N Altitude N Ambient Temp N Time N Minerals Upper in H2O Lower Target C Pan spec Material Spec C Pan Size 9 10 8 C Pan Condition S Boiling Instructions 16 18 14 C BTUs C Type of Pasta C Amount of Pasta N Altitude N Ambient Temp S Cooking instructions Key C .Controllable S . of Salt Water Remaining C Time C Amt.5 MINUTE 6 MINUTES .Step 5 Example: Add Operating Specifications Pasta Process Map Rework .SOP N . salt & oil Boil Water Add Pasta Cook Pasta Done? Yes Output Cooked Pasta Boiling Water Properly Cooked C Amt.

Process Mapping . salt and water CT=. however.5 minutes DPU=? COPQ=? Output VA Ingredients added Boil Water CT=6 minutes DPU=? COPQ=? NVA Boiling Water Water Remaining Steam Can be effective. difficult to show rework loops © 2001 ConceptFlow 36 .Excel Method Value Added/ Non value Added Input Type Amount of water Amount of salt Amount of oil Pasta instructions Amt. of Oil Lid or Not Altitude Ambient Temp. Time Minerals in H2O Pan Material Pan Size Pan Condition Boiling Instructions BTUs Controllable Controllable Controllable SOP Controllable Controllable Controllable Noise Noise Noise Noise Controllable Controllable Controllable or Noise SOP Controllable Process Add water. of Salt Amt.

Airline Reservation Process Map Example © 2001 ConceptFlow 37 .

dates. mail and/or email Traveler Revenue Profit Margin Electronic Communication Daily Billings © 2001 ConceptFlow . Times Current Credit Card w/available credit limit Correct Airline Reservation Ticket or E-ticket Booking a Business Airline Reservation Customer Request For Travel Service Requirements Professional and Courteous Less Than 10 Minutes Low to Moderate Cost Low to Moderate Cost Mail/email. Date. carrier. seat. times. special requests Zero Defects Business/ Corporate Traveler Business/ Corporate Traveler Biggest Client Company Time to Process Traveler Company Travel Agency Traveler Cost Carrying Cost Company Business/ Corporate Traveler Business/ Corporate Traveler Travel Agent and Carrier Company Acct Rec.Step 1 Example: Airline Reservation High After process ends Level Map Occurs before process starts Suppliers (Providers of the required resources) Inputs (Resources required by the process) Process (Top level description of activity) Outputs (Deliverables from the process) Cients (Anyone who receives a deliverable from the process) Requirements Client Request for Travel Company Travel Authorization Availability Request For Reservation Travel Information Dates Travel Approval Code Initiates Reservation Company Profile. Traveler Profile. Code Departure and Arrival Cities. Credit Card Company 38 Travel Itinerary Traveler Payment Method Address. Author.

Step 2 Example: Identify All Process Steps Need For Travel Complete Travel Request Form Complete Travel Authorization Contact Agency Traveler Information Verification Information Correct Gather Customer Billing Info N Auth. Code? Y Request for Reservation Acceptable Cost? Acceptable Arrangements? Carrier Search SNAP Enter Travel Preferences Into Saber Enter Travel Information Into Saber Payment Processing Card Approved Reservation Booking E-ticket or Paper No Yes Email Verification VA: Value Added BVA: Business Value Added NVA: Non-Vale Added Print tickets & Itinerary Confirm Arrangements w/ Traveler Delivery Method Selection Address Verification Package For Outgoing Mail End Call Email Itinerary Confirm Arrangements Generate Saber E-ticket Itinerary Add steps and ALL rework loops 39 © 2001 ConceptFlow .

Code? Y Need For Travel Complete Travel Authorization Contact Agency   Request Entered Into Saber System Confirmation # Request for Reservation  Acceptable Cost? Flag discrepancy to Company Policy Acceptable Arrangements?  Service Options Determined  Lowest Cost Enter Travel Preferences Into Saber  Travel Info Entered Into Saber Enter Travel Information Into Saber Carrier Search SNAP  Reservation Booked Reservation Booking E-ticket or Paper No VA: Value Added    Address Verified Profile Updated BVA: Business Value Added NVA: Non-Vale Added Yes Email Verification Payment Processing Card Approved  Confirm Arrangements w/ Traveler Courier Selected Delivery Method Selection Print tickets & Itinerary Traveler AddressInput Verification   Package For Outgoing Mail Call time End Call Email Itinerary Confirm Arrangements Itinerary Copied Generate Saber E-ticket Itinerary What are the outputs for the other steps? © 2001 ConceptFlow 40 . Code   Agency Request Entered  Correct Traveler Information Traveler Information Verification  Updated Profile Information Correct Correct Traveler Billing Info Into System Gather Customer Billing Info N Auth.Step 3 Example: Determine Outputs For Each Step  Travel Request Complete Travel Request Form   Authorized Travel Auth.

Code   Agency Request Entered  Correct Traveler Information Traveler Information Verification         Traveler Info Company Info Restrictions if applicable Preferences (seat. Traveler Destination Customer.Step 4a Example: List Inputs For Each Step   Authorized Travel Auth. Date Name on Card Traveler input Computer System Measurement Systems Print tickets & Itinerary   Printer Ticket Machine   Card Approved Credit System Operator   Saber System Operator  Confirm Arrangements w/ Traveler     Courier Selected Delivery Method Selection Mail Overnight Courier Operator input   Address Verified Profile Updated Address Verification     Agent Traveler Computer Systems Measurement Systems  Itinerary Copied  Package For Outgoing Mail      Meter Packaging Weight Size Operator or admin Call time End Call Email Itinerary  Traveler Input Generate Saber E-ticket Itinerary  Screen Copy. Viable Alternatives. Confirm Arrangements    Email Address Internet Connect Operator input  Traveler Input © 2001 ConceptFlow 41 . Travel Budget Cost Estimate Computer Systems Location Variation     Contact Agency Contact Service. Charge No.  Domestic  International  Traveler  Approver Website.  Phone/Web Travel Information Traveler/Designee Agency Resources  day time  after hours Computer Systems Measurement Systems Time In Queue  Time in VRU  Call Volume  Peak Hours Y     Rationale.           Request Entered Into Saber System Confirmation # Request for Reservation  Acceptable Cost? Flag discrepancy to Company Policy Acceptable Arrangements?    Traveler input Company Policy Operator input         Service Options Determined  Lowest Cost Enter Travel Preferences Into Saber        Frequent Flyer Programs Preference for Carrier Traveler Input Agent Traveler Computer Systems Measurement Systems  Travel Info Entered Into Saber Enter Travel Information Into Saber Carrier Search     SNAP      Real time Saber system Operator input Agent Computer Systems Measurement Systems    Company Policy Travel Authorization Traverl Input Service Dates Times Cost Saber Program Computer Service Operator input Saber Button Operator input Saber updates         Depart City Destin City Dates of Travel Operator input Agent Traveler Computer Systems Measurement Systems  Reservation Booked Reservation Booking E-ticket or Paper No Yes Email Verification    Operator Traveler Computer System VA: Value Added BVA: Business Value Added NVA: Non-Vale Added Payment Processing        Profile Match Credit Card # Expir. Code Operator Agent Traveler Computer Systems Measurement Systems N Auth. class) Agent Traveler Computer Systems Measurement Systems  Updated Profile Information Correct         Correct Traveler Billing Info Into System Gather Customer Billing Info Client name Location Auth. Code?  Travel Request Complete Travel Request Form         Request Form. Traveler Location Variation Computer Systems Other Personnel Form Procedure Travel Information  Need For Travel Complete Travel Authorization Authorization Form.

N Measurement Systems. S Traveler. CN Ticket Machine. S Destin City. S  Domestic  International  Traveler  Approver Website. S SNAP      Real time Saber system. S Agent N Traveler N Computer Systems. S Preferences. N Traveler N Destination Customer. S Operator input. S Charge No. SN Operator input. N Measurement Systems. S Agent N Traveler N Computer Systems. N Preference for Carrier. Date. N Measurement Systems. S Travel Budget C Cost Estimate S Computer Systems.N      Contact Agency Contact Service. N  Travel Info Entered Into Saber Enter Travel Information Into Saber Carrier Search  Service. N Saber Program. S Traveler input. S    Email Address. CN Card Approved Credit System. N    Company Policy. S Travel Authorization S Traverl Input N Saber. Code?  Travel Request Complete Travel Request Form         Request Form. S Operator input. S  Credit Card #. S  Times. S Restrictions if applicable. S  Confirm Arrangements w/ Traveler     Courier Selected Delivery Method Selection Mail. N Measurement Systems. S  Traveler Input. S   Saber System. SN  after hours. S Operator. S © 2001 ConceptFlow 42 . S         Service Options Determined  Lowest Cost Enter Travel Preferences Into Saber        Frequent Flyer Programs. S Auth. S  Phone/Web Travel Information. C Operator input. Code   Agency Request Entered  Correct Traveler Information Traveler Information Verification          Updated Profile Information Correct         Correct Traveler Billing Info Into System Gather Customer Billing Info Client name. SN Computer Service. N Computer Systems. S Operator input. Code. S Button. S Operator input. CS Internet Connect. S Operator. N Other Personnel? Form Procedure S Travel Information N  Need For Travel Complete Travel Authorization Authorization Form. S  Dates. S Company Info. S Dates of Travel. S Location. N Agent N Computer Systems.Step 4b Example: Classify Input Variables   Authorized Travel Auth. S Computer System N VA: Value Added BVA: Business Value Added NVA: Non-Vale Added C: Controllable Payment Processing         Profile Match. S Operator. S Time In Queue  Time in VRU  Call Volume  Peak Hours Y     Rationale. N Traveler Input. S Weight. S Computer System S Measurement Systems? Print tickets & Itinerary   Printer.N Location Variation. C Packaging. S (seat. S Call time End Call Email Itinerary  Traveler Input Confirm Arrangements  Generate Saber E-ticket Itinerary Screen Copy. S Expir. S Name on Card.N         Traveler Info. S Overnight. N  Reservation Booked Reservation Booking E-ticket or Paper No Yes Email Verification    Operator.. N         Depart City. S Courier. CN Operator or admin. N Agency Resources  day time. CN Size. class) Agent N Traveler N Computer Systems.S Traveler/Designee. N N Auth. S Agent N Traveler N Computer Systems. S   Address Verified Profile Updated Address Verification     Agent N Traveler N Computer Systems Measurement Systems  Itinerary Copied S: Standard Operating Procedures N: Noise  Package For Outgoing Mail      Meter. S Operator input. S Saber updates. N  Cost. SN Computer Systems. N Viable Alternatives. S Company Policy. S   Request Entered Into Saber System Confirmation # Request for Reservation Acceptable Cost? Flag discrepancy to Company Policy Acceptable Arrangements?    Traveler input. N Measurement Systems. S Traveler N Location Variation. N Measurement Systems.

Step 5 Example: Add Operating Specifications • Initial Assessment of Control Plan • Start an initial assessment after process map is complete • Add • Measurement technique • Operating specifications • Targets Current Control Plan Process Step Input Output Process spec (LSL. Target) Cpk/Date (Sample Size) Measurement System %R&R or P/T Current Control Method (from FMEA) Who Where When Reaction Plan Open file: Control Plan.xls © 2001 ConceptFlow 43 . USL.

eliminate duplicates. clarify steps • Map from start to finish • Analyze/review from finish to start © 2001 ConceptFlow 44 .Tips In Process Mapping • Clarify process boundaries • Brainstorm steps • Use verbs • Do not include who in step description • Combine.

debrief) Need to Shoot Catapult © 2001 ConceptFlow Ready Aim Fire Measure Distance 45 .) (15 min. complete a detailed map for the process you used for launching the catapult (steps 2-5. slide 28) (45 min.Catapult Process Map Exercise In teams.

Actual Team Catapult Process Map 1 INPUTS Catapult Distance 8' +/.C Ball Type . X.6" OUTPUTS Fuctional catapult to SOP Functional catapult that meets customer requirement of 8'+/ -6" Tally Sheet #1 Distance of 8'with mininal variation Catapult Assembly Set-up Floor Plan Collect and Measure Data Analyze Data Rubberband . SOP Foil .C. X.Critical N . SOP Duct Tape . C.C.X. SOP Stop Pin Location .C.C.C. X.C. X. SOP Cup Location .C.C. SOP Ball Placement Operator .N Units .Standard Operating Procedures C . SOP Operator . SOP Catapult .C.Control X .X. SOP Tape Measure .C Rubberband Placement .C.C. SOP Tension Pin Location . N Stop Pin Location Side Play in Arm Elasticity of Band Airflow Pull Back Time Finger Location Floor Type Main Arm pull back angle-C.C. N Floor Material . N SOP .Noise © 2001 ConceptFlow 46 . SOP Lighting to foil . SOP Operator . SOP SOP for Set-up .X.

Put a pin in the #4 hole of the stabilizer 6. Place assembled catapult on the corner of table marked with an X 11. Make sure that the arm is not touching either side of base 4. Shooter is kneeling on the floor with the catapult arm in front of them 2. Assemble the arm with the cup in the hole marked # 2 2. Place the rubber band on the nub on the front of the catapult 10. Place left index finger and thumb on arm nearest to the cup 3. Release the arm © 2001 ConceptFlow 47 . Tape catapult to table 12. Tape paper owl down on the table 14. Drape the rubber band over the pin on the stabilizer with the stabilizer between the rubber band 9. Place ball in bag of chalk powder 17. Place ball loosely in cup still using thumb and index finger Shoot 1. Stretch paper towel in front of catapult 13. Put the Stop pin in hole # 4 hole 8. Place wing nut on the eyelet screw and tighten down 4. Affix rubber band to eyelet screw 5. Take ball out of the bag of chalk with right hand using thumb and forefinger Position of ball 1. Place the screw with the eyelet through the hole marked # 4on the arm with the eyelet facing the stabilizer 3.Catapult Exercise Pick 1.SOP . Place tape measure on the table starting at the tip of catapult going on top of the paper towel to the end of the tape 15. Tape the tape measure to the table 16. Put a pin in the hole on the bottom of the base through the hole in the arm furthest from the cup connecting the two 7.

SOP X-Base square to mounting suface .SOP X-Grip Technique .N © 2001 ConceptFlow 48 .N X-Ball Placement .SOP X-Ball Selection .N X-Wind / Air Flow .SOP X-Angle Pin .SOP X-Determine Pull back angle .C X-Cup Placement .SOP X-Pull back time .SOP X-Spotter measurement criteria .SOP X-Moisture of shooters fingers .SOP X-Rubber Band Set up .SOP X-Secure target to floor .SOP X-Secure to avoid movement .SOP X-Establish firing direction .SOP X-Determine start point for tape measure .SOP X-Side to side play in arm .SOP X-Elasticity of rubber band .SOP X-Base Pin .SOP X-Arm Pin .SOP X-Record Hits .N X-Units defined .SOP X-Interval between shots .Actual Team Catapult Process Map 2 Y-Firing Capability Y-Repeatable MSE Y-Target Acquisition Y-Acurate Data Catapult Assembly Catapult Set up Launch Measurement X-Rubber Band .

Actual Team Catapult Process Map 3 Obtain the teams Catapult Obtain the teams rubber ball Remove table cloth Clamp front edge of Catapult to front edge of table Set Front arm tension pin at 2 Set rear arm tension pin 3 Set up measuring system Set up target area Mark loading position on ball Cup position to hole five Check wing nuts Test fire Catapult to find target range Set-up Proper Catapult set-up Catapult Operator Pick-up ball Load the ball softly in cup Align ball with the mark at top of cup Hold arm with thumb and fore finger Pull back arm to proper angle Load Catapult Loaded Catapult Release arm Fire Catapult ten times Fire Catapult launched Ball Id each shot one thru ten Three operators to measure distance Measure to the nearest 1/8th inch Each operator measures the shot three times. Record measurements Measurement Shot Measured © 2001 ConceptFlow 49 .

spokesperson. review. dress. timekeeper. brew. scribe • As a team. eat. pick one of the following and go through the process mapping procedure • Examples • Making coffee (buy. clean. mail out) • Choose leader. set-up. serve) • Getting to work (wake.Additional Breakout Sessions • In teams. be prepared to present the map on a flipchart easel © 2001 ConceptFlow 50 . write check. travel) • Paying bills (open mail.

Success Factors • • • • • • • Team members Time and scheduling Method Involve stakeholders Multiple opinions “Walk the process. repeatedly” Ask lots of questions Maintain process maps & update frequently with dates as capture additional information © 2001 ConceptFlow 51 .

Preparing The Process Map • Team Effort • Cross-Functional • Process Owners • Clients • Suppliers • Inputs to Mapping • Brainstorming • Operator Manuals • Specifications • Process Owner Experience Involve people who know (focus on) the “current” process © 2001 ConceptFlow 52 .

Traps To Avoid • Depth • Choosing wrong level costs time and effort • Accuracy • Incorrect information • Too much detail • Too little detail © 2001 ConceptFlow 53 .

Additional Maps • • • • Common flowchart Top-down flowchart Functional or Deployment flowchart Others Useful in general… but do NOT provide the detail required for full analysis © 2001 ConceptFlow 54 .

Common Flowchart Help Kids Start Snooze Wait No Wake Up Ready? No Yes Bath Free ? Shower No Yes Kids Ready ? Yes OK Eat Drive Traffic? Go Late? No Yes Sneak In Wave To Boss Heavy Change Route Stop © 2001 ConceptFlow 55 .

Top-Down Flowchart • Two levels of detail • Summarizes “how it is supposed to work” • Used to “describe” not “analyze” Card Dropping Pick Position Drop Deck on table Pick one Thumb and forefinger Do not bend Foot on x Stand straight Face target Hand: shoulder height Card vertical Align arm Hold still Release fingers Free fall © 2001 ConceptFlow 56 .

Functional Or Deployment Flow Diagram Business Unit Define needs Prepare paperwork Review & approve Receive & use Review & approve standard Configure & install Procure. Review & approve Issue payment Review & approve Acquire equipment Supplier Supplier 21 days 6 days 15 days 5 days 17 days 7 days 71 days © 2001 ConceptFlow 57 .Top Mgt/ Finances ment Corporate I.T.

Links to Other Tools
The detailed process map provides input to: • Cause and Effects Matrix • Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) • Control Plan Summary • Capability Summary • Multi-Vari Studies • DOE planning • Control Plan

© 2001 ConceptFlow

58

Next Steps
Detailed Process Map
Cause and Effects Matrix

Initial Control Plans

FMEA

DETAILED Process Mapping is the foundation of many other Breakthrough Strategy® tools
© 2001 ConceptFlow 59

Key Learning Points
• • • •

© 2001 ConceptFlow

60

the participant should be able to: • Discuss the need for process mapping • Apply various types of process maps in a project • Discuss how flow charts and other charts are used to map a process • Prepare a detailed Process Map © 2001 ConceptFlow 61 .Module Objectives Review By the end of this module.

Appendix © 2001 ConceptFlow 62 .

Support for Typing • • • • • Request Not Sent Request Lost Request Incomplete No Formal Format 1 Day – 5 Days Mail E-Mail Fax MS-Mail Phone • Keystroke Errors • Misunderstanding of Request • 5 min – ½ Days Typed Letter taken back to Pricing Specialist for Review and Signature Signed Letter given back to Pricing Dept. Admin. Support for Distribution to approved list Typed/Signed Letter given to MPMP Entry Specialist for Billing system input Product Code/Price is Active in Billing System 5 Min . prepares request to Pricing Dept. reviews product and prices with client Account Mgr.1/2 Day • Keystroke Errors • Misunderstanding of Request • 1 Day .Transactional Example Request is put into Checklist rotation • Checklist Incomplete • 1 Day .1/2 Day • 5 Min .3 Days BK1-2PROCESS MAP © 2001 ConceptFlow 63 . for special pricing Request need to be checklisted No Request is sent to Pricing Dept. Admin.21 Days Yes Account Mgr.

05 CT = 45 sec COQ = ? Prep time Acid number Viscosity Reactor temp Temp profile HT coeff Agit speed Contr Temperature Contr Pressure Contr Air flow Contr % O2 in air Noise Air temp Contr Stabilize Tally Point 1 Oxid time Acid number Color Viscosity Reactor temp Temp profile Offgas flow Offgas comp HT coeff Resp time Tally Point 2 Belt speed Belt temp Flow rate Nozzle type Hole size Room temp Agit speed Tank temp Contr Contr Contr Contr Contr Noise Contr Contr Oxidize Put in setpoints Sample hourly Monitor acid number DPU = 0.11 Pellet appear Prepare Reactor Charge melted wax Bring to reaction temp DPU = 0. Sys Spec Process Steps Type Major Step Sub-Step Output Ys Meas.01 Temp profile CT = 5 sec Offgas flow Offgas comp COQ = ? HT coeff Finish time Acid number Finish Color Check nozzle type Viscosity Put in setpoints Drop Point Monitor appearance Hardness DPU = 0.02 CT = 30 sec COQ = ? CT = 21 sec COQ = ? Xs Input Meas. Sys Spec Cp/ CpK 64 © 2001 ConceptFlow .Excel Method Input Wax grade Amt wax Charge rate Agit speed Rxn temp Pressure Air flow % O2 in air Viscosity Wax temp AN target Agit speed * Temperature * Pressure * Air flow * % O2 in air Air temp Air humidity Type Contr Contr Contr Contr Contr Contr Contr Noise Noise Noise Contr Contr Contr Contr Contr Noise Contr Noise Output Input Type Output Stab time Acid number Put in setpoints Color Slowly reduce press Viscosity Monitor temp Reactor temp DPU = 0.Process Mapping .

Sys. Spec Process Steps Type Major Step Prepare Production Batch Sub-Step Output KPOVs Meas.Example Of Detailed Map/Control Plan KPIVs Input Meas.2/.6/1.6 15/20/20 1.2 125 55/60/75 1.0/0.8 This can be easily created in Excel © 2001 ConceptFlow 65 . Sys. RPM Thermocoup 300-310 Cont Tachometer 275-300 Cont Set Tank Temp Agitate Softening Point Viscosity Penetration Lab Test Lab Test Lab Test 118/124/ 1. Spec. Cp/ CpK Tank Temp Agit.

Start OK Yes Light ? No Replace Battery Bad Test Battery Yes Light ? No OK Replace Bulb Bad Test Bulb OK Stop Yes Light ? No Buy New Flashlight © 2001 ConceptFlow 66 .Corrective Action Guidelines • Used to determine cause of failures • Troubleshooting Wrong Fix Battery Position Battery Pos.

Alternative Path Leave Voicemail Message 75% Decide Who To Call Hang Up 30% Dial 5% 20% Say “Hello” Conversation Hang Up 70% Look Up # Hang Up Key 60% 40% Task Direction Common within Re-Engineering efforts © 2001 ConceptFlow 67 .

Data Flow Diagram Brokerage System Data Flow Diagram Payable Payables Records Seller Seller ID Advance on Purchase Settlement Purchase Agreement # Settlement # Agreement to Purchase Deliveries © 2001 ConceptFlow 68 .

ESSENTEQ is a trademark of Six Sigma Academy. Breakthrough Lean is a trademark of Six Sigma Academy. SigmaTRAC is a trademark of DuPont. FOR A MORE PERFECT WORLD is a federally registered trademark of Six Sigma Academy. Inc. MINITAB is a trademark of Minitab. SigmaCALC is a trademark of Six Sigma Academy. Design with the Power of Six Sigma is a trademark of Six Sigma Academy. Breakthrough Design is a trademark of Six Sigma Academy. . Breakthrough Strategy is a federally registered trademark of Six Sigma Academy. Inc. SSA Navigator is a trademark of Six Sigma Academy. Legal Lean is a trademark of Six Sigma Academy. FASTART is a trademark of Six Sigma Academy. Inc. VISION.Trademarks and Service Marks Six Sigma is a federally registered trademark of Motorola. iGrafx is a trademark of Micrografx.