NEUROLOGICAL THINKING

Dr. Riani Indiyarti SpS Bagian Nuerologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Trisakti

PATHOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN NEUROLOGY • Systemic – abnormalities in the nervous system secondary to systemic disease • Intrinsic – arising within the nervous system • Vascular – resulting from disturbance in the blood suply to the nervous system • Extrinsic – affecting the nervous system from outside .

hypercarbia. hyponatremia. thiamine deficiency • Endocrine : hypo/hyperthyroidisme. hypo/hypercalcemia • Toxic : drugs.SYSTEMIC • Metabolic : hypo/hyperglycemia. heavy metal. Addison’s disease . organic solvent • Nutritional : vit B12 deficiency. hypoxia.

encephalitis Neoplastic : prymary/ secondary tumours Degenerative Paroxysmal : epilepsy. polymiositis • Genetic . migraine Imunological : multiple sclerosis.INTRINSIC • • • • • • Metabolic Infectious : meningitis. Guillain-Barre syndrome. myasthenia gravis.

Pick’s disease.DEGENERATIVE DISEASE • Barain : Alzheimer disease. cerebellar degeneration • Spinal cord : motor neuron disease. Huntington’s disease. hereditary spastic paraparesis • Peipheral nerve : hereditary sensory and motor neuropathies • Muscle : muscular dystrophies . Parkinson’s disease • Brainstem and cerebellum : Progressive bulbar palsy.

subdural.VASCULAR • Haemorrhage : intracerebral. thrombosis. epidural. arterial disease (vasculitis) . subarachnoid • Infarction : embolus.

tumour infiltraton. radiation damage • Peripheral nerves . abcess.g median at wrist ulnar at elbow . cervical spondylitic compression. hydrocephalus. compression. e. extrinsic tomour. abcess • Spinal cord : trauma. extrinsic tumour • Nerve root : lumbar/ cervical disc disease • Plexus : trauma.EXTRINSIC • Brain : trauma.

trauma • Subacut : infection • Chronis : tumor. degenerative .PATHOLOGICAL PROCESSES • Acut : vascular.

immunologis M : Metabolic I : Idiopathic N : Neoplasma .DISEASES • • • • • • • V : Vascular I : Infection. inflammation T : Trauma A : Automimu.

DIAGNOSIS • • • • Diagnosis klinik Diagnosis topis Diagnosis patolohis Diagnosis etiologis .

education – Gizi • Spesific – Medikamentosa – Operation – Rehabilitation .THERAPY • General – Confirmation. information.

TERMINOLOGY • • • • • • Encephalopathy : abnormality of the brain Encephalitis : inflammation of the brain Myelopathy : abnormality of the spinal cord Myelitis : inflammation of the spinal cord Radiculopathy : abnormality of single nerve root Polyradiculopathy : abnormality of many nerve roots • Plexopathy : abnormality of the plexus (bracial or lumbar) .

TERMINOLOGY • Polyneuropathy or neuropathy : abnormality of many nerves • Mononeuropathy : abnormality of singled named nerve • Mononeuritis multiplex : an abnormality of multiple named nerves • Myopathy : abnormality of muscle (myositis/ polinyositis : inalmmation of muscle) • Meningitis : inflammation of the meningen • Meningo-encephalomyelitis : inflammation the meningens. brain and spinal cord .