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Computer System Organization
• MOTHERBOARD • CPU – ALU – CU • MEMORY – RAM(SRAM,DRAM) – ROM(PROM,EPROM,EEPROM)
• REGISTERS • MICROPROCESSOR • VON NEUMAN ARCHITECTURE
Motherboard • Motherboard is also called system board. . • Many electronic components are connected to the motherboard and some components are built into it.
.• The processor chip and memory chip are plugged (installed) into the motherboard. • The motherboard contains sockets or slots in which electronic components are installed.
. • It is the brain of the computer system. • It interprets and executes the instructions to run the computer system.Central Processing Unit (CPU) • Central Processing Unit (CPU) is also called processor.
.Cont…CPU –It perform all operations on the data according to the instructions. –It carriers out instructions and tells other parts of computer system what to do.
Cont…CPU –CPU consists of two main units. –Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) –Control Unit (CU) .
– All arithmetic and logical operations are performed in ALU. – Actual execution of the instructions takes place in this part.Arithmetic and Logic Unit(ALU) – ALU is a part of CPU. .
•Arithmetic Unit •Logic Unit .Cont…ALU • It consists of two units.
Arithmetic Unit Arithmetic Unit of the ALU performs basic functions such as: •Addition. . •Multiplication and •Division. •Subtraction.
Logic Unit LU performs logical operations like comparing two data items to find which data item is: •Greater than •Equal to •Not equal to or •Less than the other. .
Control Unit (CU) • It is the most important component of the CPU. . • It controls and coordinates the activities of all units of the computer.
. –It interpret that instruction to find what operation is to be performed. –It controls the execution of instruction.Functions of CU • CU performs the following operations: –It fetches instructions from the main memory.
• This memory is temporary storage unit for data. . instructions and information.Memory • Data and instructions are stored in memory to be executed.
Cont. . • It consists of one or more chips on the motherboard.. • It is also called primary storage.
.Cont…Memory • Memory stores the following three items: – Operating system and other system software to control the computer system.
– Data to be processed by the application programs .Cont…Memory – Application programs to perform specific tasks.
Cont…Memory • The instruction and data is stored in memory as bytes during execution. • Each byte in memory has its unique address that identifies its location. .
RAM • SRAM • DRAM 2. ROM • PROM • EPROM • EEPROM .Types Of Memory Memory is divided into two basic types: 1.
Random Access Memory (RAM) • RAM stands for Random Access Memory. • It is a volatile memory and the contents of the memory are lost as soon as the electricity supply is cut-off. . • Main memory is referred to as RAM.
So RAM is also known as read/write memory. . • It is used to store all data and instructions of a program while it is being executed.Cont…RAM • The CPU can write and read to and from the RAM.
• RAM’s are built using two different technologies. Therefore, RAM is divided into two types.
– DRAM – SRAM
• DRAM sands for Dynamic Random Access Memory. • This type of memory is used in most of the computers. • In order to maintain data in DRAM chip, it must be re-energized with electric charge frequency otherwise data stored in DRAM may be lost.
• SRAM stands for Static Random Access Memory. • It is more reliable. • In SRAM, chips are not re-energized as often as in DRAM so called as static.
Comparison between DRAM and SRAM • SRAM is faster than DRAM because it does not have to be refreshed with electric charge frequently and CPU has not to wait to read and write data. .
• The design of SRAM is more complex than the design of DRAM. • SRAM chip is more expansive than DRAM chip.Cont… • SRAM utilizes less power. .
instructions) stored in this memory can be read but new data cannot be written into it. Therefore it is called as read only memory. .Read Only Memory (ROM) • ROM stands for Read Only Memory.. • The contents (i.e.
• ROM is a non-volatile memory.Cont… ROM • The manufacture of the ROM writes the data and programs permanently into it and contents of this memory cannot be changed afterwards. . So the data and programs stored in ROM chip is not lost when electricity is cutoff.
• It is a Blank ROM chip onto which a programmer can write Instructions.PROM • PROM stands for Programmable Read Only Memory. • Once the ROM chip has being written it functions like regular ROM and cannot be erased or changed. .
• Like PROM. it is initially blank and the user or manufacture can writes his own program or data by using special devices. .EPROM • EPROM stands for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.
So program or data written in EPROM chip can be changed and new data can also be added on this form of ROM. its contents can only be read. . the data written in EPROM chip can be erased by using special purpose devices and ultraviolet rays.Cont… • Unlike PROM. • When EPROM is in use.
. Electrically Read Only • This kind of ROM can be re-written by using electrical devices • Data stored on this ROM chip can be easily modified.EEPROM • EEPROM stands for Erasable Programmable Memory.
Cache memory • A cache (pronounced "cash") is a small and very fast memory. • It is designed to speed up the transfer of data and instructions. The data and instructions that are most recently or most frequently used by CPU are stored in cache. • It is faster than RAM. .
.Cont… • The data and instructions are retrieved from RAM when CPU uses them for first time. it first looks in cache. If the required data is found there. A copy of that data or instructions is stored in cache. It speeds up the working of CPU. it is retrieved from cache memory instead of main memory. When next time CPU needs that data or instructions.
Flash Memory • Flash memory is also called flash ROM or flash RAM. . • It is a type of nonvolatile memory. It can be erased electronically and reprogrammed.
digital cameras etc. .Cont… • Most computers use Flash memory to hold their startup instructions. • Flash memory chip are used to store data on handheld computers like cellular phones.
.Memory Access Time The amount of time required by processor to read data. instructions and information from memory is called access time.
• Different circuit boards are inserted into the motherboard to add new devices and enhance capabilities to the computer. .Expansion Slots • Expansion slot is a socket that is mounted on a motherboard to insert circuit board.
It converts computer output into a video signal and sends it to the monitor to display.Cont… • Some examples are memory chips.It is also called video adapter or graphics card. sound devices. . Different types of expansion cards are as follows: Video Card . modems or graphics card etc.
It is a communication device that allows a computer to communicate via a network. It allows sound to be input through microphone and output through speakers. • .Sound Card – It enhances the sound-generating capabilities of a computer. Network Interface Card (NIC) – It is also called network card.
It is a communication device that enables computer to communicate via telephone line.Modem Card It is also called an internal modem. .
Ports • A port is an interface or point of attachment. • It is used to connect peripheral device with computer such as printers. . keyboards or mouse.
One end of the cable is attached to connector on the system unit and the other end is attached to the connector on the peripheral device . • A connector joins a cable to a device.Cont…Ports • Ports have different types of connectors.
Different Types of ports Different types of Ports are as follows: 1. Parallel Port 3. Serial port 2. USB Port .
Serial port • A serial port is used to connect devices to the system unit. . • A serial port transmits data one bit at a time through a single wire.
• Printers connect to computer using a parallel port.Parallel Ports • Parallel port is used to connect devices that transfer 8 bits at a time. . • The transmission of data through parallel port is faster than serial port.
Universal Serial Bus (USB) Port • USB stands for Universal Serial Bus. It means that you can attach devices with the computer while computer is running. • Many computers have two to four USB ports either on the front or back of the system unit. . • USB port also support hot plugging and plug and play. You have not to restart the computer after attaching the device.
6V. • It is a simple electrical system. 12V and 24V.Power Supply • It is an electrical component inside the system unit that converts the AC power into the DC power. which takes 240 or 110 voltages and convert them into DC voltage of 3V. . • It supplies the correct voltage or power to all parts of the computer.
BUS • The electrical paths through which computer (CPU) send and receives data and instructions to and from different components of computer are called computer buses. .
For example a bus with 16 lines can transfer 16 bit at a time. One line can carry one bit at a time. . The amount of data that a bus can carry is called “bus width”.Cont… • A bus consists of 40 to 150 electric wires or lines running parallel to each other. • The capacity of computer bus depends on the data lines it contains.
24 and 32 bits of data. high-speed memories inside the CPU. The larger the size of register.Registers • • • • Registers are the special-purpose. The size of the register is the number of bits it can hold at a time. Usually a register can hold 8. . The register that can store 8 bits is referred to as 8-bit register.16. the greater will be the data processing speed of the CPU.
Cont… • Registers are used for special purpose: • Temporary storage of memory addresses • Temporary storage of instructions during execution of the program. • Temporary storage of data being worked upon by the CPU. .
Name of Register Memory Address (MAR) Memory Buffer (MBR) FUNCTION Hold address of active memory location Hold information on its way to and from memory 3. 6. 4. Instruction Register (IR) Input/output (I/O) Hold instruction.Register S. Program control (PC) Accumulator (A) Hold address of the next instruction to be executed Accumulates results and data to be operated upon 5. 2. while it is being executed Communicates with I/O devices .No 1.
Microprocessor • Today. microprocessor used in microcomputers designed in a single chip and fits into special socket on the motherboard. .
two types of microprocessors are used. 1. Motorola Microprocessor . Intel Microprocessor 2.Microprocessor • In personal computers.
. Most advanced microprocessor chip of Intel is P4. It is used in microprocessor. Microsoft Windows Operating System is developed to run on Intel microprocessor. 90% microcomputers used this type of microprocessor.Intel Microprocessor • • • • • This microprocessor made by Intel Corporation.
Motorola Microprocessor: • It is made by Motorola. • It is used in personal computers of Apple. • Macintosh OS is developed to run on Motorola microprocessor. .
. This STORED PROGRAM CONCEPT has the standard approach used today.VON NEUMAN ARCHITECTURE: A computer’s program can be changed by changing the contents of memory instead of rewiring CU.
this is called machine language . To apply it .Cont. a machine is designed to recognized certain bit pattern as representing certain instructions..
• The coded version of a machine instruction typically consist of two parts: – Op-code field – Operand field .Machine Language • Machine language defines the mean by which we communicate algorithms to machine.
Op-code field • Op. . XOR . • Elementary operation are STORE . SHIFT. and JUMP.code field indicates which of the elementary operation is requested by the instruction.
g. • E. . the information in the operand field indicates which register contain data to be stored and which memory cell is to receive the data.Operand field • Bit pattern found in operand field provide more detail information about operation specified by op-code field. – In case of STORE operation .
Program Execution • Machine cycle provide an algorithm to CU to perform its job continuously. • Cycle consist of – FETCH – DECODE – EXECUTE .
• CU place the instruction received from memory in its instruction register • Then increment the program counter. so it get address of next instruction. • The unit knows where the next instruction is in memory because its address is kept in program counter.Fetch • CU request that main memory provide it with the next instruction to be executed. .
CU decode the instruction . . EXECUTE: • CU then execute the instruction by activating the appropriate circuitry to perform requested task. which involves the breaking instruction into op-code and operand.Decode: • With the instruction in IR.
Example of program execution ADDRESS A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 CONTENTS 15 6C 16 6D 50 56 30 6E C0 00 .
– So instruction to be fetched occupies the memory cell at both address A0 and A1.Example of program execution Step 1: CU begins the fetch step by extracting the instruction at location A0 and placing the instruction in IR. which is 16-bit long . – Note that in our machine instruction are 16 bits long. – CU are design in manner that it can receive contents from both cells and place it in IR .
• Step 3: LOAD register 5 with the contents of memory cell at 6C. CU then begins the next cycle.Example of program execution CU adds 2 in the PC. . so it gets address of next instruction Now PC : A2 IR : 156C • Step 2: CU analyze instruction in IR and conclude .
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