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# BOOLEAN EXPRESSION SIMPLIFICATION

NEED FOR SIMPLIFICATION SIMPLIFICATION METHODS 1.USING BOOLEAN THEOREMS 2. KARNAUGH MAP METHOD 3.QUINE Mc CLUSKY METHOD

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**NEED FOR SIMPLIFICATION
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F = x’y’z +x’yz +xy’ ------- Eqn 1 = x’z (y + y’) + xy’ = x’z +xy’ ------- Eqn 2

Compare Eqn 1 and Eqn 2 Eqn 1 requires two 3 input AND gates, one 2 input AND gate and an OR gate with 3 inputs Eqn 2 requires two 2 input AND gates and an OR gate with 2 inputs Simplified expression requires lesser number of gates and lesser number of inputs. It is preferable since it requires less wires and less components

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Need better understanding of laws and theorems 3.SIMPLIFICATION USING BOOLEAN THEOREMS DISADVANTAGES 1.Time consuming process 2.Lack of specific rules to predict each succeeding step in reduction process. 3 .

also known as K-map. invented by Maurice Karnaugh of Bell Labs in 1953.KARNAUGH MAP METHOD • Karnaugh Map. Each square represents a minterm or maxterm of the logic function • K-map identifies the group of minterms which contains redundant variables of the form x + x’ = 1 and then it can be eliminated. is a diagrammatic method for logic minimization • Pictorial form of truth table showing the relationship between inputs & outputs • More efficient than Boolean algebra • K-map is a diagram made up of squares. 4 .

TWO . the minterm is either 0 or 1 depending on the value of the function at that square 5 . there are 4 minterms.variable function has 4 squares: In each square.VARIABLE K-MAP • For a 2-variable function. Therefore. the K-map for a 2.

a logic 1 is entered into the square where the corresponding minterm exists.Construction of 2-variable K-map • To construct a K-map for a 2-variable function. A logic 0 is entered otherwise (or the square is left blank) • (ex) f = A’B + AB’ • f is true when AB = 01 or 10 • f = Σ(1. 2) 6 .

Construction of K-map from Truth Table • A K-map can be created directly from a truth table • Each square of the K-map corresponds to one row of the truth table • A logic 1 is entered when the function is 1 • A logic 0 is entered when the function is 0 • For example 7 .

3-variable K-map • A 3-variable logic function has 8 minterms and its truth table has 8 rows • Hence. a 3-variable K-map has 8 squares 8 .

6) m2 is a’bc’ and m6 is abc’ f = m2 + m6 = a’bc’ + abc’ = bc’(a’ + a) = bc’ The 2 minterms have a common factor bc’ In the K-map. f = Σ(2. we can reduce 1 variable 9 .Logic Minimization with K-Map • • • • • Consider a logic function with m2 and m6 i. if we group these 2 adjacent minterms.e.

TRUTH TABLE TO MAP 10 .

Example of looping pairs of adjacent 1s PAIRS 11 .

Example of looping pairs of adjacent 1s QUADS 12 .

Example of looping pairs of adjacent 1s OCTETS 13 .

• Form the sum of all product terms generated by each loop. • Loop 1s that are not adjacent to any other 1s. place 1s as indicated in the truth table. 14 . • Check for octets (group of eight 1s) • If octets not available check for quads (four adjacent 1s) • Loop 1s that are adjacent to only one other 1 and encircle such pairs.PROCEDURE • Construct the K map. • 1s which are already present in a group can be included in new group to group the other 1s.

Examples 15 .

• F’ = B’C + AC • F = (B’C + AC)’ = (B’C)’ (AC)’ = (B+C’) (A’+C’) 16 . will give logic functions in product of sums form.g. e.K-map for Product of Sums • Covering logic-1 squares in K-map gives logic functions in sum of products form • Covering logic-0 squares.

K-map for Product of Sums Example 17 .

DON’T-CARE Conditions • In logic function. sometimes we do not have the specification for all the combinations • We might define a logic function to be 1 for some combinations and 0 for some others but the rest is not define • We do not care about the logic value of the function for these undefined combinations called as DON’T-CARE conditions • DON’T-CARE conditions are usually denoted by ‘x’. or ‘X’ or ‘d’ 18 .

5) + d(4. 2.b.c) = Σ(1.Truth Table with DON’T-CARE Conditions • f has unknown (or don’t care) values for combinations abc = 100 or 110 • Usually expressed as: f(a. 6) 19 .

we enter ‘x’ into the squares where the function is undefined • When a K-map contains don’t-care conditions. we can treat the don’t-cares as either 1 or 0 • We make use of x=1for grouping them with adjacent 1’s to make the groups larger • We don’t group x when it is treated as 0 20 .K-map with DON’T-CARE Conditions • When constructing a K-map for a logic function with don’t-care conditions.