F = x’y’z +x’yz +xy’ ------- Eqn 1 = x’z (y + y’) + xy’ = x’z +xy’ ------- Eqn 2
Compare Eqn 1 and Eqn 2 Eqn 1 requires two 3 input AND gates, one 2 input AND gate and an OR gate with 3 inputs Eqn 2 requires two 2 input AND gates and an OR gate with 2 inputs Simplified expression requires lesser number of gates and lesser number of inputs. It is preferable since it requires less wires and less components


Need better understanding of laws and theorems 3.SIMPLIFICATION USING BOOLEAN THEOREMS DISADVANTAGES 1.Time consuming process 2.Lack of specific rules to predict each succeeding step in reduction process. 3 .

also known as K-map. invented by Maurice Karnaugh of Bell Labs in 1953.KARNAUGH MAP METHOD • Karnaugh Map. Each square represents a minterm or maxterm of the logic function • K-map identifies the group of minterms which contains redundant variables of the form x + x’ = 1 and then it can be eliminated. is a diagrammatic method for logic minimization • Pictorial form of truth table showing the relationship between inputs & outputs • More efficient than Boolean algebra • K-map is a diagram made up of squares. 4 .

TWO . the minterm is either 0 or 1 depending on the value of the function at that square 5 . there are 4 minterms.variable function has 4 squares: In each square.VARIABLE K-MAP • For a 2-variable function. Therefore. the K-map for a 2.

a logic 1 is entered into the square where the corresponding minterm exists.Construction of 2-variable K-map • To construct a K-map for a 2-variable function. A logic 0 is entered otherwise (or the square is left blank) • (ex) f = A’B + AB’ • f is true when AB = 01 or 10 • f = Σ(1. 2) 6 .

Construction of K-map from Truth Table • A K-map can be created directly from a truth table • Each square of the K-map corresponds to one row of the truth table • A logic 1 is entered when the function is 1 • A logic 0 is entered when the function is 0 • For example 7 .

3-variable K-map • A 3-variable logic function has 8 minterms and its truth table has 8 rows • Hence. a 3-variable K-map has 8 squares 8 .

6) m2 is a’bc’ and m6 is abc’ f = m2 + m6 = a’bc’ + abc’ = bc’(a’ + a) = bc’ The 2 minterms have a common factor bc’ In the K-map. f = Σ(2. we can reduce 1 variable 9 .Logic Minimization with K-Map • • • • • Consider a logic function with m2 and m6 i. if we group these 2 adjacent minterms.e.


Example of looping pairs of adjacent 1s PAIRS 11 .

Example of looping pairs of adjacent 1s QUADS 12 .

Example of looping pairs of adjacent 1s OCTETS 13 .

• Form the sum of all product terms generated by each loop. • Loop 1s that are not adjacent to any other 1s. place 1s as indicated in the truth table. 14 . • Check for octets (group of eight 1s) • If octets not available check for quads (four adjacent 1s) • Loop 1s that are adjacent to only one other 1 and encircle such pairs.PROCEDURE • Construct the K map. • 1s which are already present in a group can be included in new group to group the other 1s.

Examples 15 .

• F’ = B’C + AC • F = (B’C + AC)’ = (B’C)’ (AC)’ = (B+C’) (A’+C’) 16 . will give logic functions in product of sums form.g. e.K-map for Product of Sums • Covering logic-1 squares in K-map gives logic functions in sum of products form • Covering logic-0 squares.

K-map for Product of Sums Example 17 .

DON’T-CARE Conditions • In logic function. sometimes we do not have the specification for all the combinations • We might define a logic function to be 1 for some combinations and 0 for some others but the rest is not define • We do not care about the logic value of the function for these undefined combinations called as DON’T-CARE conditions • DON’T-CARE conditions are usually denoted by ‘x’. or ‘X’ or ‘d’ 18 .

5) + d(4. 2.b.c) = Σ(1.Truth Table with DON’T-CARE Conditions • f has unknown (or don’t care) values for combinations abc = 100 or 110 • Usually expressed as: f(a. 6) 19 .

we enter ‘x’ into the squares where the function is undefined • When a K-map contains don’t-care conditions. we can treat the don’t-cares as either 1 or 0 • We make use of x=1for grouping them with adjacent 1’s to make the groups larger • We don’t group x when it is treated as 0 20 .K-map with DON’T-CARE Conditions • When constructing a K-map for a logic function with don’t-care conditions.

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