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• Collection of opportunistic diseases associated with immunodeficiency • Caused by human immunodeficiency virus • HIV = retrovirus (contains RNA) that commandeers the infected cell’s proteinmanufacturing machinery • Targets helper T cells (T lymphocytes)

• Essentially a ball of protein & lipid surrounding core of RNA, containing reverse transcriptase & integrase • Can only reproduce INSIDE a host cell

especially those with CD4 receptors in plasma membranes .HIV • HIV often infects Tlymphocytes.

especially viral diseases • If T cells are destroyed.• T cells are vital – play key role in protecting against infectious diseases. diarrhoea. tuberculosis. Kaposi’s sarcoma • TO DATE – NO CURE although do have drug therapies that extend and improve quality of life.g. EXPENSIVE and may not be freely available! . respiratory tract infections like pneumonia. opportunistic infections occur e.


AIDS symptoms • • • • • • • Persistent tiredness & weight loss Night sweats Persistent diarrhoea Blurred vision White spots on the tongue or mouth Dry cough & shortness of breath Persistent fever or swollen glands .



TRANSMISSION • Transmitted when body fluids come into DIRECT CONTACT During sexual intercourse Sharing hypodermic needles Blood transfusions Mother to unborn child • Once infected. may develop AIDS. after an incubation period ranging from 2 weeks to 20+ years .

or %<14. infected cells are destroyed as the viruses bud out or the cell bursts • CDC: AIDS is defined as being HIV+ and having a CD4 cell count of <200 per µL of blood. the virus replicates • Flu-like symptoms may appear • As virus replicates. .• During the incubation period.

they are not reaching people most at risk: the young.5 million people are living with HIV • 65% of new infections in 2005 occurred in subSaharan Africa • Some prevention programmes have not been sustained! In many. drug-users etc. . the sex workers.AIDS: A CLOSER LOOK • The global AIDS epidemic (widespread outbreak of an infectious disease) continues to grow • Also a PANDEMIC (disease that has spread worldwide) • 39. the women.

• In 2009 approximately 7000 people were newly infected with HIV each day • 97% were in low. .& mid-income countries • About 1000 of these were in children < 15 • Of remaining 6000. ~51% women and 41% in age range 15 – 24 y.o.




AIDS figures .

in Caribbean (2007) .Prevalence of HIV/AIDS in adults >15 y.o.


HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean • Caribbean has some of the highest rates of infection (2nd highest level of adult HIV prevalence. 1st = Sub-Saharan Africa) .


• BUT AIDS remains one of leading causes of death among adults aged 15 – 44 years in the region • KEY REGIONAL DYNAMICS: o Heterosexual transmission (often tied to sex work) o Substantial transmission among men who have sex with men (HIV prevalence of 38% in Jamaica) o Injecting drug use plays small role but important in Puerto Rico .AIDS in the Caribbean • Women account for ~50% of all infections in Caribbean (prevalence especially high in young women) • Treatment coverage increased to about 67%.

• Adult HIV prevalence in 2011 ~ 1% • Sharp decline in new infections & AIDSrelated deaths since 2001 • Nearly 75% of HIV+ live in Dominican Republic & Haiti .

EXPLAINING OUR RATES • Unprotected sexual intercourse • Multiple partners • Unwillingness to admit to being HIVpositive .

How has each of the following contributed to the global HIV pandemic? • Length of incubation period (often symptomless) • Ease of global travel • Common practice of multiple sex partners • High cost of effective drug therapies • Poor education about transmission of HIV .

The Caribbean Story .