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Nemathelminthes . . The male is smaller than the female and commonly has a curved posterior end and in some species.Nematoda  Includes numerous free-living and parasitic species. They range in length from 2mm (Stronglyoides stercoralis) to a more than a meter ( Drancunculus medinensis) the sexes are usually separate. copulatory spicules and a bursa.


setae. subcuticular epithelium C. noncellular cuticle B. an outer. and papillae for purposes of abrasion. teeth. primarily bilaterally symmetrical.Morphology and Physiology  The adult nematode is an elongated cylindrical worm. hyaline. muscle cells layer . attachment and sensory response  The body wall is consist of: A. plates. The anterior ends maybe equipped by hooks.

syncytial . The body wall surrounds a cavity. and two lateral that project into the body cavity and separate the somatic muscle cells into four groups. within which lie the digestive. bosses or sensory papillae. subcuticular layer is thickened into four longitudinal cords – dorsal. The thin. Theses cords carry longitudinal nerves and often lateral excretory canals. The cuticle has various surface markings and spines. It is line by delicate connective tissues and a single layer of muscle cells . reproductive and parts of the nervous and excretory system. ventral.

It leads into a tubular or funnelshaped buccal cavity expanded for sucking. The mouth is surrounded by lips or papilae and in some species is equipped by teeth or plates. The esophagus lined with an extension of the buccal cuticle has striated muscular wall. a triradiate lumen and associated esophageal gland .Alimentary tract is a simple tube extending from the mouth to the anus which opens on the ventral surface a short distance from the posterior extremity.

 There is no circulatory system. The fluid of the body cavity contains hemoglobin. glucose. proteins. salts and vitamins and fulfills the function of the blood. In the male it joins with the genital duct to form the common cloaca which opens through the anus. . In the female it leads into a short rectum lined with cuticle. The midgut is a flattened with a wide lumen that follows a straight course from the esophagus to the rectum.

. The nervous system consist of a ring or commissure of connected ganglia surrounding the esophagus. and six nerve trunks connected commissures extend posteriorly.  The excretory system consist of two lateral canals that lie in the lateral longitudinal cords. From this commissure six nerve trunks pass forward to the head and circumolar region. Nematodes possess only longitudinal muscle which produce their typical sinuous movement. The lateral canals join in a bridge from which the terminal duct leads to a ventral pore in the region of the esophagus.

vas deferens. ovejector. oviduct. seminal receptacle. differentiated into ovary.Reproductive organs MALE – situated in the posterior third of the body as a single coiled or convoluted tube. FEMALE – either a single or a bifurcated tube. seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct.000 eggs . The daily output of a gravid female ranges from 20 to 200. uterus. and vagina. the various parts of which are differentiated as testis.

Position maintenance  Ancylostoma – oral attachment to the mucosa  Trichuris – anchorage with their attenuated ends  Stronglyoides – penetration of the tissues  Ascaris – retention in the folds of mucosa and pressure against it. .

Methods of obtaining food  Ancylostoma – sucking with ingestion of blood  Trichuris – ingestion of lysed tissues and blood embedded worms  Ascaris – feeding on the intestinal contents  Filarial worms – ingestion of nourishments from the body fluids .

Life span  The female Trichinella spiralis is passed from the intestine 4 to 16 weeks  Enterobius vermucularis has a life span of 1 to 2 months  Ascaris lumbricoides may live for about a year  Hook worms have been observed to persist for about 14 years .

Some species have an intermediate host in which the larva passes through a cyclic development. Nematodes with few exceptions do not multiply in humans.thus differing from many other pathogenic organisms . both inside and outside the host .Life cycle  Larvae either resume their parasitic existence of again develop into mature free-living worms that produce further generations. governs the escape of the eggs and the character of the life cycle. nematodes pass through several molts or ecdyses. During larval development. The location of the adult parasite in the host . to a large extent.

or the intensity of infection. Tissue reaction to nematode parasites can involve both immediate hyper sensitivity. the number of parasites presents. some degree of invasion to the intestinal wall or mucosal damage from blood sucking. there maybe some irritations. Is a critical factor in determining the amount of damage to the host. or allergic reactions as well as delayed-type cell mediated reactions with glaucoma and giant cell formation . The local reaction to adult worms in the intestine are generally minimal.Pathogenicity  Since nematodes can rarely multiply in humans.

neutrophil interaction to generate chemotactic factors for eosinophils.Resistance and Immunity  Inability of nematode parasites to infect a host may be due to some innate. and direct attack of larval nematodes by eosinophils. A variety of immunologic reactions that take place at the surface membrane of the nematodes are complement activation. . preexisting incompatibility that renders the host resistant or the immunity acquired from previous exposure to the parasite.

 Production of antibodies of the immunoglobin class IgE.  Immunopathology can be manifested y allergic reactions. or the bronchopasm and cough of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia or filariasis. Immunopathologic tissue damage to the skin and eye is a prominent feature of onchocerciasis. . such as urticarial skin eruptions during accute trichosis or visceral larva migrans. which fix to mast cells and mediate immediate hypersensitivity reactions is a prominent feature of many nematode infections.