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Implementing Inter-VLAN Routing

Describing Routing Between VLANs

Inter-VLAN Routing with External Router

• Single trunk link carries traffic for multiple VLANs to and from router.

Inter-VLAN Routing External Router Configuration Commands
Configure on subinterface
• encapsulation dot1Q (or isl) 10 • ip address

• show vlan 10 • show ip route

Inter-VLAN Routing on External Router: 802.1Q Trunk Link

Inter-VLAN Routing on External Router: ISL Trunk Link .

.Verifying Inter-VLAN Routing The ping command tests connectivity to remote hosts.

Verifying the Inter-VLAN Routing Configuration Router#show vlan • Displays the current IP configuration per VLAN Router#show ip route • Displays IP route table information Router#show ip interface brief • Displays IP address on interfaces and current state of interface .

Explaining Multilayer Switching .

Layer 2 Switch Forwarding Process .

Logical Packet Flow for a Multilayer Switch .

IP Unicast Frame and Packet Rewrite Incoming IP Unicast Packet Rewritten IP Unicast Packet .

CAM Table • Requires an exact match on all bits • Matching is a binary operation: 0 or 1 • Provides very highspeed lookups .

1.TCAM Table • Matches only significant values • Matches based on three values: 0. or X (either) • Masks used to wildcard some content fields .

. • A router on a stick requires subinterfaces. • Multilayer switches rewrite the Layer 2 and Layer 3 header using tables held in hardware.Summary • A router on a stick can be used to route between VLANs using either ISL or 802. • Verify inter-VLAN routing by generating IP packets between two subnets.1Q as the trunking protocol. one for each VLAN. • Multilayer switches can forward traffic at both Layer 2 and Layer 3.

Implementing Inter-VLAN Routing Enabling Routing Between VLANs on a Multilayer Switch .

Layer 3 SVI . Verify • show ip route .0 • router eigrp 50 – network 10.1 255.0.SVI on a Multilayer Switch Configure • ip routing • interface vlan 10 – ip address 10.1.

Switch(config)#ip routing Step 2 : Create an SVI interface. Switch(config)#interface vlan vlan-id Step 3 : Assign an IP address to the SVI. Switch(config)#router ip_routing_protocol <options> . Switch(config-if)#ip address ip-address mask Step 4 : Configure the IP routing protocol if needed.Configuring Inter-VLAN Routing Through an SVI Step 1 : Configure IP routing.

Routed Ports on a Multilayer Switch (Cont.) .

0 .255.Routed Ports on a Multilayer Switch • Physical switch port with Layer 3 capability • Not associated with a VLAN • Requires removal of Layer 2 port functionality Configure • ip routing • interface fa0/1 – no switchport – ip address 10.0 • router eigrp 50 – network 255.

Switch(config-if)#no switchport Step 3 : Assign an IP address to the routed port.Configuring a Routed Port Step 1 : Configure IP routing. Switch(config)#ip routing Step 2 : Create a routed port. Switch(config)#router ip_routing_protocol <options> . Switch(config-if)#ip address ip-address mask Step 4 : Configure the IP routing protocol if needed.

. • The interface vlan command creates the SVI. • A routed port requires the removal of Layer 2 port functionality with the no switchport command. • To receive dynamic updates. • Specific commands are used to configure and verify routing on multilayer switch interfaces.Summary • SVI is a VLAN of switch ports represented by one interface to the routing system. • A routed port has Layer 3 attributes. a routing protocol is required.

Implementing Inter-VLAN Routing Deploying CEF-Based Multilayer Switching .

such as routing protocols. the control path and data path are relatively independent. runs on the route processor. • Data packets are forwarded by the switching fabric. .Layer 3 Switch Processing In Layer 3 switches. • The control path code.

• Topology-based switching: Information from the routing table is used to populate the route cache. . • Distributed switching: Switching decisions can be made on a port or line-card level. regardless of traffic.Layer 3 Switch Processing (Cont. • Centralized switching: Switching decisions are made on the route processor by a central forwarding table.) Layer 3 switching can occur at two different locations on the switch. Layer 3 switching takes place using one of these two methods: • Route caching: A Layer 3 route cache is built in hardware as the switch sees traffic flow into the switch.

.CEF-Based Multilayer Switches • CEF caches routing information in the FIB table and Layer 2 next-hop addresses in the adjacency table.

Multilayer Switch Packet Forwarding Process • Some IP packets cannot be processed in hardware. • If an IP packet cannot be processed in hardware. it is processed by the Layer 3 engine. .

The longest match returns adjacency with rewrite information.CEF-Based MLS Lookups 1. 2. . The packet is rewritten per adjacency information and forwarded. Layer 3 packets initiate TCAM lookup. 3.

ARP Throttling .

CEF-Based MLS Operation .

Configuring and Verifying CEF Configuring CEF • ip cef (enabled by default) • ip route-cache cef (only on VLAN interface) Verifying CEF • show ip cef fa 0/1 detail • show adjacency fa 0/1 detail .

Enabling CEF The commands required to enable CEF are platform dependent: • On the Cisco Catalyst 4000 switch Switch(config-if)#ip cef • On the Cisco Catalyst 3550 switch Switch(config-if)#ip route-cache cef .

1052 node Table epoch: 0 (13 entries at this epoch) 172. 12 nodes. version 6. peak 0 13 leaves. 14248 bytes. epoch 0. attached. 1 invalidations 0 load sharing elements.0/24. 0 reresolve. 0 revisions of existing leaves Resolution Timer: Exponential (currently 1s. peak 1s) 0 in-place/0 aborted modifications refcounts: 1061 leaf.11. connected 0 packets. 0 new).Verifying CEF Switch#show ip cef [type mod/port | vlan_interface] [detail] Switch# show ip cef vlan 11 detail IP CEF with switching (Table Version 11). flags=0x0 10 routes. 0 bytes via Vlan11. id 4B936A24 2(0) CEF resets. 0 dependencies valid glean adjacency . 0 bytes. 14 inserts. 0 unresolved (0 old.16. 0 references universal per-destination load sharing algorithm.

Common CEF Problems • Is ideal switching method (CEF. DCEF) in use? • Are CEF tables complete and accurate? .

. 349370039 bytes..mcast: 0 pkt. Switch# .Verify Layer 3 Switching Switch#show interface {{type mod/port} | {port-channel number}} | begin L3 Switch#show interface fastethernet 3/3 | begin L3 L3 in Switched: ucast: 0 pkt. 0 no buffer Received 3795255 broadcasts. 0 bytes 4046399 packets input.mcast: 12 pkt. 0 bytes . 0 bytes ... 2 runts. 778 bytes mcast L3 out Switched: ucast: 0 pkt. 0 throttles . 0 giants.

0 bytes .mcast: 0 pkt. 0 bytes mcast L3 out Switched: ucast: 2975 pkt. 371952 bytes L3 in Switched: ucast: 3045 pkt. 693411 bytes .Displaying Hardware Layer 3 Switching Statistics Switch#show interfaces {{type mod/port} | {port-channel number}} include switched Switch#show interfaces gigabitethernet 9/5 | include switched L2 Switched: ucast: 8199 pkt. 1362060 bytes . 742761 bytes .mcast: 0 pkt.mcast: 6980 pkt.

206(11) 504 packets.Adjacency Information Switch#show adjacency [{{type mod/port} | {port-channel number}} | detail | internal | summary] Switch#show adjacency gigabitethernet 9/5 detail Protocol Interface Address IP GigabitEthernet9/5 172. 6110 bytes 00605C865B82 000164F83FA50800 ARP 03:49:31 .20.53.

Debugging CEF Operations Switch#debug ip cef {drops | access-list | receive | events | prefix-ipc | table} • Displays debug information for CEF Switch#debug ip cef {ipc | interface-ipc} • Displays debug information related to IPC in CEF Switch#ping ip • Performs an extended ping .

How to Troubleshoot CEF .

• CEF uses tables in hardware to forward packets. • Ordered steps assist in troubleshooting CEF-based problems. • CEF problems can be matched to specific solutions. • Specific commands are used to troubleshoot and solve CEF problems. • Commands to enable CEF are platform dependent.Summary • Layer 3 switching is high-performance packet switching in hardware. • MLS functionality can be implemented through CEF. • Specific commands are used to enable and verify CEF operations. .

Module Summary • An external router can be configured to route packets between the VLANs on a Layer 2 switch. • CEF-based multilayer switching facilitates packet switching in hardware. . • Multilayer switches allow routing and the configuration of interfaces to pass packets between VLANs.