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Implementing High Availability in a Campus Environment

Configuring Layer 3 Redundancy with HSRP

Routing Issues: Using Default Gateways

Routing Issues: Using Proxy ARP

Router Redundancy

) .Router Redundancy (Cont.

HSRP Standby group: The set of routers participating in HSRP that jointly emulate a virtual router .

.The Active Router The active router responds to ARP requests with the MAC address of the virtual router.

The Virtual Router MAC Address .

0. .2.0.The Standby Router The standby router listens for periodic hello messages on 224.

Active and Standby Router Interaction .

HSRP States An HSRP router can be in one of six different states: • Initial • Learn • Listen • Speak • Standby • Active .

HSRP State Transition HSRP Standby Group 1 Router A Priority 100 Initial Listen Speak Standby Router A does not hear an active router. Active Listen Speak Standby Initial Listen Speak Router B Priority 50 Router A does not hear any higher priority than itself. Router B hears that router A has a higher priority. so router B returns to the listen state. . so promotes itself to active. so promotes itself to standby.

HSRP Standby State A router in the standby state: • Is a candidate for active router • Sends hello messages • Knows the virtual router IP address .

HSRP Active State A router in the active state: • Assumes the active forwarding of packets for the virtual router • Sends hello messages • Knows the virtual router IP address .

1 Verify • show running-config • show standby .1.HSRP Configuration Commands Configure • standby 1 ip 10.1.

.Configuring an HSRP Standby Interface Enabling HSRP on a Cisco router interface automatically disables ICMP redirects.

115 .16. | Interface Grp Prio P State Active addr Standby addr Vl11 11 110 Active local 172.16.Displaying the Standby Brief Status Switch#show standby brief P indicates configured to preempt.11.11.114 Group addr 172.

• HSRP provides router redundancy to end devices.Summary • Router redundancy allows two or more routers to work as a group to maintain forwarding of IP packets. • HSRP is configured using the standby command. • HSRP operates to provide nonstop path redundancy for IP. • A single default gateway or proxy ARP does not provide the redundancy required in a campus network. • HSRP is enabled per interface. . • An HSRP-enabled router will exist in a specific state or transition through a series of states.

Implementing High Availability in a Campus Environment Optimizing HSRP .

HSRP Optimization Options These options can be configured to optimize HSRP: • HSRP standby priority • HSRP standby preempt • Hello message timers • HSRP interface tracking .

.Configuring HSRP Standby Priority • The router with the highest priority in an HSRP group becomes the active router. the router with the highest configured IP address will become active. • The default priority is 100. • In the case of a tie.

Configuring HSRP Standby Preempt Preempt enables a router to resume the forwarding router role. .

Configuring the Hello Message Timers The holdtime parameter value should be at least three times the value of the hellotime parameter. .

HSRP Interface Tracking .

HSRP Interface Tracking (Cont.) .

.Configuring HSRP Tracking Switch(config-if)#standby [group-number] track type number [interface-priority] • Configures HSRP tracking Switch(config)#interface vlan 10 Switch(config-if)#standby 1 track GigabitEthernet 0/7 50 Switch(config-if)#standby 1 track GigabitEthernet 0/8 60 • Example of HSRP tracking Note: Preempt must be configured on all participating devices within the HSRP group.

• Configure preempt delay timer so that preempt occurs only after the distribution switch has fully rebooted and established full connectivity to the rest of the network.Tuning HSRP • Configure hellotime and holdtime to millisecond values. .

. assign them to multiple groups on the same subnet.Multiple HSRP Groups To load balance routers.

. configure the HSRP active router and the spanning tree root to be the same multilayer switch.Addressing HSRP Groups Across Trunk Links • To load balance routers and links: – Per VLAN.

About the HSRP Debug Command • debug standby events • debug standby terse .

1.113 2 Hello in 172.16.111 Active pri 150 vIP 172.16.16.287: *Mar 4 19:08:09.1.1.1.1.113 1 Hello out 172.112 Active pri 50 vIP 172.16.1.16.113 active virtual address 172.891: *Mar 4 19:08:09.16.16.1.16.16.113 active virtual address 172.113 1 Hello out 172.16.294: *Mar 4 19:08:10.918: *Mar 4 19:08:09.1.16.113 2 Hello in 172.1.1.1.113 active virtual address 172.898: *Mar 4 19:08:10.898: *Mar 4 19:08:10.16.294: *Mar 4 19:08:10.112 Active pri 50 vIP 172.16.294: *Mar 4 19:08:10.965: *Mar 4 19:08:11.891: *Mar 4 19:08:10.1.111 Active pri 150 vIP 172.113 1 Hello out 172.1.287: *Mar 4 19:08:09.113 found • Example of HSRP debug showing standby group number mismatch .294: *Mar 4 19:08:10.113 found Duplicate ARP entry detected for 172.1.1.16.Debugging HSRP DSW111#debug standby *Mar 4 19:08:08.1.112 Active pri 50 vIP 172.16.111 Active pri 150 vIP 172.1.300: HSRP: HSRP: HSRP: HSRP: HSRP: HSRP: HSRP: HSRP: HSRP: HSRP: HSRP: HSRP: HSRP: HSRP: HSRP: Vl1 Vl1 Vl1 Vl1 Vl1 Vl1 Vl1 Vl1 Vl1 Vl1 Vl1 Vl1 Vl1 Vl1 Vl1 Grp Grp API API Grp Grp API API Grp Grp API API Grp Grp API 1 Hello out 172.16.111 Active pri 150 vIP 172.16.113 2 Hello in 172.16.113 2 Hello in 172.113 found Duplicate ARP entry detected for 172.113 active virtual address 172.1.112 Active pri 50 vIP 172.16.113 found Duplicate ARP entry detected for 172.294: *Mar 4 19:08:10.1.16.16.1.16.16.1.294: *Mar 4 19:08:10.1.1.

Summary • Preempt. • Specific debug commands are used to view HSRP state changes. timers. and interface tracking are options that can be configured to optimize HSRP. • Debug can be used to discover the virtual IP address and the priority of the active and standby routers. a single interface on a router can be a member of multiple HSRP groups. • To facilitate load sharing. . • HSRP preempt can be tuned by adjusting timers that can thereby reduce failover time.

Implementing High Availability in a Campus Environment Configuring Layer 3 Redundancy with VRRP and GLBP .

VRRP .

VRRP Operational Process .

.Configuring VRRP on an Interface Enable VRRP on an interface and display the configuration.

Gateway Load Balancing Protocol • Single virtual IP address and multiple virtual MAC addresses • Traffic to single gateway distributed across routers • Automatic rerouting in the event of any failure • Full use of resources on all routers without the administrative burden of creating multiple groups .

GLBP Operations • GLBP group members elect one AVG. . • Each router becomes an AVF for frames that are addressed to that virtual MAC address. • AVG replies to the ARP requests from clients with different virtual MAC addresses. thus achieving load balancing. • AVG assigns a virtual MAC address to each member of the group.

GLBP Operation .

) .GLBP Operation (Cont.

GLBP Interface Tracking .

) .GLBP Interface Tracking (Cont.

.Configuring GLBP on an Interface Enable GLBP on an interface and display the configuration.

.Summary • VRRP provides router redundancy in a manner similar to HSRP. • GLBP provides router redundancy and load balancing. • VRRP supports a master and one or more backup routers. • VRRP and GLBP are configured per interface. • GLBP balances traffic by allocating a virtual MAC address to each AVF.

• HSRP can be tuned to provide subsecond failover to a standby router. .Module Summary • HSRP is enabled so that redundant routers can provide default gateway functionality. • VRRP or GLBP can provide Layer 3 router failover in addition to load balancing at the distribution layer.