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# PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS

 Nucleation
 Growth
 APPLICATIONS
 Transformations in Steel
 Precipitation
 Solidification & crystallization
 Glass transition
 Recovery, Recrystallization & Grain growth
Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys
David Porter & Kenneth Esterling
Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd., New York (1981)
Diffusional
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS
Martensitic
1
nd
order
nucleation & growth
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS
2
nd
order
Entire volume transforms
Based on
Mass
transport
Based on
order
Energies involved
Bulk Gibbs free energy ↓
Interfacial energy ↑
Strain energy ↑
Solid-solid transformation
Volume of transforming material
New interface created
 The concepts are illustrated using solidification of a metal
• TT means TIME TEMPERATURE TRANSFORMATION diagram.......
Isothermal transformation diagrams (also known as time-temperature-
transformation or TTT diagrams) are plots of temperature versus time
(usually on a logarithmic scale). They are useful for understanding the
transformations of an alloy steel that is cooled isothermally. Isothermal
transformation diagrams are generated from percentage transformation-vs
logarithm of time measurements.

CCT means CONTINOUS COOLING TRANSFORMATION diagram........
A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) phase diagram is often used
when heat treating steel.These diagrams are used to represent which types
of phase changes will occur if a material at it is cooled at different rates.
These diagrams are often more useful than time-temperature-
transformation diagrams because it is more convenient to cool materials at
a certain rate than to cool quickly and hold at a certain temperature.
Nucleation
of
| phase
Trasformation
o → |
+
Growth
till
o is
exhausted
=
1
nd
order
nucleation & growth
Liquid → Solid phase transformation
Solid (G
S)

Liquid (G
L
)
T
m

T →
G

AT
AG
Liquid stable Solid stable
AT - Undercooling
↑ t
“For sufficient
Undercooling”
 On cooling just below T
m
solid becomes stable
 But solidification does not start
 E.g. liquid Ni can be undercooled 250 K below T
m

AG → ÷ve
AG → +ve
Nucleation
 The probability of nucleation occurring at point in the parent phase is
same throughout the parent phase
 In heterogeneous nucleation there are some preferred sites in the
parent phase where nucleation can occur
Homogenous
Heterogenous
Nucleation
Nucleation Solidification
+
Growth
=
 Liquid → solid
walls of container, inclusions
 Solid → solid
inclusions, grain boundaries,
dislocations, stacking faults
Homogenous nucleation
) ( (Surface). ) (Volume).( ΔG ¸ + A = G
( ) ) .( 4 ) .(
3
4
ΔG
2 3
¸ t t r G r
v
+ A
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
2

r
3

1
Neglected in L → S
transformations
) ( T f G
v
A = A
energy strain in increase energy surface in increase energy free bulk in Reduction
nucleation on change energy Free
+ +
=
( ) ) .( 4 ) .(
3
4
ΔG
2 3
¸ t t r G r
v
+ A
|
.
|

\
|
=
 By setting dAG/dr = 0 the critical values (corresponding to the maximum)
are obtained (denoted by superscript *)
 Reduction in free energy is obtained only after r
0
is obtained
0 =
A
dr
G d
0
*
1
= r
v
G
r
A
÷ =
¸ 2
*
2
Trivial
v
G
r
A
÷ =
¸ 2
*
2
3
*
3
16
v
G
G
A
= A
¸
t
As AG
v
is ÷ve, r
*
is +ve
r →
A
G

0 =
A
dr
G d
0 = AG
*
r
0
r
0 = AG
v
G
r
A
÷ =
¸ 3
0
Supercritical nuclei Embryos
) ( T f G
v
A = A
The bulk free energy reduction is a function of undercooling
r →
A
G

Decreasing r
*

D
e
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g

A
G
*

T
m

2
3
2 2
16
3
m
T
G
T H

-
A =
A A
Turnbull approximation
No. of critical sized
particles
Rate of nucleation
x
Frequency with which they
become supercritical
=
dt
dN
I =
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
÷
=
kT
G
t
e N N
*

*
|
.
|

\
|
A
÷
=
kT
H
d
e s '
*
v v
Critical sized nucleus
s
*
atoms of the liquid facing the nucleus
Critical sized nucleus
Jump taking particle to supercriticality
→ nucleated (enthalpy of activation = AH
d
)
No. of particles/volume in L
v → lattice vibration frequency (~10
13
/s)
|
|
.
|

\
|
A + A
÷
=
kT
H G
t
d
e s N I
*

*
v
I →
T

(
K
)

I
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g

A
T

T
m

0
T = T
m
→ AG
*
= · → I = 0
 AG
*
↑ ¬ I ↓
 T ↑ ¬ I ↑
T = 0 → I = 0
Heterogeneous nucleation
Consider the nucleation of | from o on a planar surface of inclusion o
¸
o|

¸
oo

o
|
o
¸
|o

u
oo |o o|
¸ ¸ ¸ ) ( ) ( ) (A ) (V ΔG
lens lens circle circle v
A A G ÷ + + A =
A
lens
¸
o|

A
circle
¸
|o

A
circle
¸
oo

Created
Created
Lost
oo |o o|
¸ ¸ u ¸ = + Cos
Surface tension force balance
Interfacial Energies
V
lens
= th
2
(3r-h)/3 A
lens
= 2trh h = (1-Cosu)r r
circle
= r Sinu
o|
|o oo
¸
¸ ¸
u
÷
= Cos
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
v
hetero
G
r
A
÷ =
o|
¸ 2
*
( ) u u
¸
t
o|
3
2
3
*
3 2
3
4
Cos Cos
G
G
v
hetero
+ ÷
A
= A
0 =
A
dr
G d
( ) u u
3
homo
*
3 2
4
1
Cos Cos G G
*
hetero
+ ÷ = A
u (degrees) →
A
G
*
h
e
t
e
r
o

/

A
G
*
h
o
m
o

AG
*
hetero
(0
o
) = 0
no barrier to nucleation
AG
*
hetero
(90
o
) = AG
*
homo
/2
AG
*
hetero
(180
o
) = AG
*
homo

no benefit
Complete wetting No wetting
Partial wetting
o|
|o oo
¸
¸ ¸
u
÷
= Cos
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
÷
·
kT
G
e I I
*
homo

0
homo homo
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
÷
·
kT
G
e I I
*
hetero

0
hetero hetero
= f(number of nucleation sites)
~ 10
42

= f(number of nucleation sites)
~ 10
26

BUT
the exponential term dominates
I
hetero
> I
homo

Choice of heterogeneous nucleating agent
 Small value of u
 Choosing a nucleating agent with a low value of ¸
|o
(low energy |o interface)
 (Actually the value of (¸
oo
÷ ¸
|o
) will determine the effectiveness of the
heterogeneous nucleating agent → high ¸
oo
or low ¸
|o
)
 low value of ¸
|o

Crystal structure of | and o are similar and lattice parameters are as close as
possible
 Seeding rain-bearing clouds → AgI or NaCl → nucleation of ice crystals
 Ni (FCC, a = 3.52 Å) is used a heterogeneous nucleating agent in the
production of artificial diamonds (FCC, a = 3.57 Å) from graphite
¸
o|
¸
oo
o
|
o
¸
|o
u
o|
|o oo
¸
¸ ¸
u
÷
= Cos
¸
o|
¸
oo
o
|
o
¸
|o
u
o|
|o oo
¸
¸ ¸
u
÷
= Cos
Nucleation
of
| phase
Trasformation
o → |
+
Growth
till
o is
exhausted
=
AH
d
– v
atom
AG
v

AH
d

o phase
| phase
 At transformation temperature the probability of jump of atom from o → |
(across the interface) is same as the reverse jump
 Growth proceeds below the transformation temperature, wherein the activation
barrier for the reverse jump is higher
Growth
rate) Growth rate, on f(Nucleati rate tion Transforma =
) , ( U I f
dt
dX
T = =
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
3
t U I π
β
4 3
e 1 X
I, U, T →
T

(
K
)

I
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g

A
T

T
m

0
U
T
I
Maximum of growth rate usually
at higher temperature than
maximum of nucleation rate
t →
X
|

0
1.0
0.5
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
3
t U I π
β
4 3
e 1 X
Time – Temperature – Transformation (TTT) diagrams
A type of phase
diagram
T (rate ¬ sec
÷1
) →
T

(
K
)

T
T
m

0
t (sec) →
T

(
K
)

T
m

0
Time for transformation
Small driving
force for nucleation
Growth
sluggish
Replot
t (sec) →
T

(
K
)

99% = finish
Increasing % transformation
o
|
TTT diagram o → | phase transformation
1% = start
T →
G

Turnbull’s approximation
T
m

Solid (G
S)

Liquid (G
L
)
AT
AG
m m
m
T
T
h
T
T T
h G
A
A =
÷
A = A
sion heat of fu Δh ÷
2
3 *
3
16
|
|
.
|

\
|
A A
= A
T h
T
G
m

APPLICATIONS
Phase Transformations in Steel
Precipitation
Solidification and crystallization
Glass transition
Recovery recrystallization & grain growth
Phase Transformations in Steel
%C →
T

Fe
Fe
3
C
6.7
4.3
0.8 0.16
2.06
Peritectic
L + o → ¸
Eutectic
L → ¸ + Fe
3
C
Eutectoid
¸ → o + Fe
3
C
L
o
L + ¸
¸
¸ + Fe
3
C
o
1493ºC
1147ºC
723ºC
Fe-Cementite diagram
0.025 %C
0.1 %C
o + Fe
3
C
Austenite
Austenite
Pearlite
Pearlite + Bainite
Bainite
Martensite
100
200
300
400
600
500
800
723
0.1
1
10
10
2
10
3
10
4

10
5

Eutectoid temperature

Not an isothermal
transformation
M
s

M
f

Coarse
Fine
t (s) →
T

Time- Temperature-Transformation (TTT) Curves – Isothermal Transformation
Eutectoid steel (0.8%C)
Austenite
Pearlite
Pearlite + Bainite
Bainite
Martensite
100
200
300
400
600
500
800
723
0.1
1
10
10
2
10
3
10
4

10
5

Eutectoid temperature
M
s

M
f

t (s) →
T

Time- Temperature-Transformation (TTT) Curves – Isothermal Transformation
Eutectoid steel (0.8%C)
o + Fe
3
C
Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) Curves Eutectoid steel (0.8%C)
Austenite
Martensite
100
200
300
400
600
500
800
723
0.1
1
10
10
2
10
3
10
4

10
5

Eutectoid temperature
M
s

M
f

t (s) →
T

Original TTT lines
Cooling curves
Constant rate
Pearlite
1
T

2
T

Eutectoid steel (0.8%C)
100
200
300
400
600
500
800
723
0.1
1
10
10
2
10
3
10
4

10
5

t (s) →
T

Different cooling treatments
M = Martensite
P = Pearlite
Coarse P
P
M
M +
Fine P
Pearlite
 Nucleation and growth
 Heterogeneous nucleation at grain boundaries
 Interlamellar spacing is a function of the temperature of transformation
 Lower temperature → finer spacing → higher hardness
¸ → o + Fe
3
C
[1] Physical Metallurgy for Engineers by Donald S Clark and Wilbur R Varney (Second Edition) Affiliated EastWest Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1962
[1]
[1]
Bainite
 Nucleation and growth
 Acicular, accompanied by surface distortions
** Lower temperature →
carbide could be ε carbide (hexagonal structure, 8.4% C)
 Bainite plates have irrational habit planes
 Ferrite in Bainite plates possess different orientation relationship
relative to the parent Austenite than does the Ferrite in Pearlite
¸ → o + Fe
3
C
**

Bainite formed at 348
o
C
Bainite formed at 278
o
C
[1] Physical Metallurgy for Engineers by Donald S Clark and Wilbur R Varney (Second Edition) Affiliated EastWest Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1962
[1]
[1]
Martensite
FCC
Austenite
FCC
Austenite
Alternate choice of
Cell
Tetragonal
Martensite
Austenite to Martensite → 4.3 % volume increase
Possible positions of
Carbon atoms
Only a fraction of
the sites occupied
20% contraction of c-axis
12% expansion of a-axis
Refer Fig.9.11 in textbook
In Pure Fe after
the Matensitic transformation
c = a
C along the c-axis
obstructs the contraction
C
BCT
C
FCC
Quench
% 8 . 0
) ( '
% 8 . 0
) ( o ¸
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
Martensite
 The martensitic transformation occurs without composition change
 The transformation occurs by shear without need for diffusion
 The atomic movements required are only a fraction of the interatomic
spacing
 The shear changes the shape of the transforming region
→ results in considerable amount of shear energy
→ plate-like shape of Martensite
 The amount of martensite formed is a function of the temperature to
which the sample is quenched and not of time
 Hardness of martensite is a function of the carbon content
→ but high hardness steel is very brittle as martensite is brittle
 Steel is reheated to increase its ductility
→ this process is called TEMPERING
% Carbon →
H
a
r
d
n
e
s
s

(
R
c
)

20
40
60
0.2 0.4 0.6
Harness of Martensite as a
function of Carbon content
Properties of 0.8% C steel
Constituent Hardness (R
c
) Tensile strength (MN / m
2
)
Coarse pearlite 16 710
Fine pearlite 30 990
Bainite 45 1470
Martensite 65 -
Martensite tempered at 250
o
C 55 1990
Tempering
 Heat below Eutectoid temperature → wait→ slow cooling
The microstructural changes which take place during tempering
are very complex
 Time temperature cycle chosen to optimize strength and toughness
 Tool steel: As quenched (R
c
65) → Tempered (R
c
45-55)
Cementite
OR F
Ferrite
BCC
Martensite
BCT
Temper
) ( C e ) ( ) ( '
3
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
o o
Austenite
Pearlite
Pearlite + Bainite
Bainite
Martensite
100
200
300
400
600
500
800
723
0.1 1 10
10
2
10
3
10
4

10
5

Eutectoid temperature
M
s

M
f

t (s) →
T

o + Fe
3
C
MARTEMPERING
AUSTEMPERING
 To avoid residual stresses generated during quenching
 Austenized steel is quenched above Ms for homogenization of temperature
across the sample
 The steel is then quenched and the entire sample transforms simultaneously
 Tempering follows
 To avoid residual stresses generated during quenching
 Austenized steel is quenched above M
s

 Held long enough for transformation to Bainite
Martempering
Austempering
ALLOY STEELS
 Various elements like Cr, Mn, Ni, W, Mo etc are added to plain carbon
steels to create alloy steels
 The alloys elements move the nose of the TTT diagram to the right
→ this implies that a slower cooling rate can be employed to obtain
martensite → increased HARDENABILITY
 The „C‟ curves for pearlite and bainite transformations overlap in the
case of plain carbon steels → in alloy steels pearlite and bainite
transformations can be represented by separate ‘C’ curves
ROLE OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS
• + Simplicity of heat treatment and lower cost
• ÷ Low hardenability
• ÷ Loss of hardness on tempering
• ÷ Low corrosion and oxidation resistance
• ÷ Low strength at high temperatures
Plain Carbon Steel
Segregation / phase separation
Solid solution
Compound (new crystal structure)
• ↑ hardenability
• Provide a fine distribution of alloy carbides during tempering
• ↑ resistance to softening on tempering
• ↑ corrosion and oxidation resistance
• ↑ strength at high temperatures
• Strengthen steels that cannot be quenched
• Make easier to obtain the properties throughout a larger section
• ↑ Elastic limit (no increase in toughness)
Alloying elements
• Alter temperature at which the transformation occurs
• Alter solubility of C in o or ¸ Iron
• Alter the rate of various reactions
Interstitial
Substitutional
Austenite Pearlite
Bainite
Martensite
100
200
300
400
600
500
800
M
s

M
f

t →
T

TTT diagram for Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel
~1 min
Precipitation
 The presence of dislocation weakens the crystal → easy plastic deformation
 Putting hindrance to dislocation motion increases the strength of the crystal
 Fine precipitates dispersed in the matrix provide such an impediment
 Strength of Al → 100 MPa
Strength of Duralumin (Al + 4% Cu + other alloying elements) → 500 MPa
Al
% Cu →
T

(
º
C
)

200
400
600
15
30 45 60
L
o
u
Sloping Solvus line
¬ high T → high solubility
low T → low solubility
of Cu in Al
Al rich end of the Al-Cu phase diagram
o
4 % Cu
o + u
 o → o + u
Slow equilibrium cooling gives rise to
coarse u precipitates which is not good
in impeding dislocation motion.
*

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
RT
Cu
Tetragonal CuAl
RT
Cu
FCC
C
Cu
FCC
cool slow
o
% 52
) (
% 5 . 0
) (
550
% 4
) (
2

u o o
*Also refer section on Double Ended Frank-Read Source in the chapter on plasticity: t
max
= Gb/L
C
A
B
Heat (to 550
o
C) → solid solution o
Quench (to RT) →
Age (reheat to 200
o
C) → fine precipitates
o
4 % Cu
o + u
C
A
B
To obtain a fine distribution of precipitates the cycle A → B → C is used
Note: Treatments A, B, C are for the same
composition
supersaturated solution
Increased vacancy concentration
Log(t) →
H
a
r
d
n
e
s
s

180
o
C
100
o
C
20
o
C
 Higher temperature ¬ less time of aging to obtain peak hardness
 Lower temperature ¬ increased peak hardness
¬ optimization between time and hardness required
Log(t) →
H
a
r
d
n
e
s
s

180
o
C
T
m

Overaged
Underaged
Peak-aged
Region of solid solution
strengthening
(no precipitation hardening)
Region of precipitation
hardening
(but little solid solution
strengthening)
Dispersion of
fine precipitates
(closely spaced)
Coarsening
of precipitates
with increased
interparticle spacing
Log(t) →
H
a
r
d
n
e
s
s

180
o
C
Peak-aged
C
R
S
S

I
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

2
1
r ·
r
1
·
Particle
shearing
Particle
By-pass
) (t f r =
 Due to large surface to volume ratio the fine precipitates have a tendency
to coarsen → small particles dissolve and large particles grow
 Coarsening
¬ ↓ in number of particles
¬ ↑ in interparticle spacing
¬ reduced hindrance to dislocation motion (t
max
= Gb/L)
Solidification and Crystallization
↑ AH
fusion

↓ AH
d
~· Log [Viscosity (q)]
Crystallization favoured by
High → (10-15) kJ / mole
Low → (1-10) Poise
Metals
Enthalpy of activation for
diffusion across the interface
Difficult to amorphize metals
Thermodynamic
Kinetic
Very fast cooling rates ~10
6
K/s are used for the amorphization of alloys
→ splat cooling, melt-spinning.
2
*
1
fusion
H
G
A
· A
 Fine grain size bestows superior mechanical properties on the material
 High nucleation rate and slow growth rate ¬ fine grain size
 ↑ Cooling rate ¬ lesser time at temperatures near T
m
, where the peak
of growth rate (U) lies ¬ ↑ nucleation rate
 Cooling rates ~ (10
5
– 10
6
) K/s are usually employed
 Grain refinement can also be achieved by using external nucleating agents
 Single crystals can be grown by pulling a seed crystal out of the melt
I, U →
T

(
K
)

T
m

0
U
I
↑ AH
fusion

↓ AH
d
~· Log [Viscosity (q)]
Crystallization favoured by
low
High → (1000) Poise
Silicates
Enthalpy of activation for
diffusion across the interface
Easily amorphized
Thermodynamic
Kinetic
Certain oxides can be added to silica to promote crystallization
 In contrast to metals silicates, borates and phosphates tend to form glasses
 Due to high cation-cation repulsion these materials have open structures
 In silicates the difference in total bond energy between periodic and
aperiodic array is small (bond energy is primarily determined by the
first neighbours of the central cation within the unit
 A composite material of glass and ceramic (crystals) can have better
thermal and mechanical properties
 But glass itself is easier to form (shape into desired geometry)
Glass-ceramic (pyroceram)
Shaping of material in glassy state
Heterogenous nucleating agents (e.g. TiO
2
) added (dissolved) to molten glass
TiO
2
is precipitated as fine particles
Held at temperature of maximum nucleation rate (I)
Heated to temperature of maximum growth rate
t →
T

Nucleation
Growth
T
maximum I
T
maximum U
Glass
Partially crystallized Glass
 Even at the end of the heat treatment the material is not fully crystalline
 Fine crystals are embedded in a glassy matrix
 Crystal size ~ 0.1 µm (typical grain size in a metal ~ 10 µm)
 Ultrafine grain size
¬ good mechanical properties and thermal shock resistance
 Cookware made of pyroceram can be heated directly on flame
Glass Transition
“All materials would amorphize on cooling unless crystallization intervenes”
T →
V
o
l
u
m
e

Or other extensive
thermodynamic
property →
S, H, E
Glass
Crystal
T
g
T
m

Glass transition temperature
T →
V
o
l
u
m
e

Change in slope
T
f

Fictive temperature (temperature at which glass is metastable
if quenched instantaneously to this temperature)
→ can be taken as T
g

T →
V
o
l
u
m
e

Effect of rate of cooling
1
T

2
T

2 1
T T
 
>
Slower cooling
Slower cooling Higher density
Lower T
g

Lower volume
As more time for atoms to
arrange in closer packed
configuration
T →
L
o
g

(
v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
)

Glass
Crystal
T
g
T
m

Supercooled
liquid
 On crystallization the viscosity abruptly changes from ~100 → ~10
20
Pa s
 A solid can be defined a material with a viscosity > 10
12
Poise
T
g

Heat glass
Cool liquid
T
x

Often metallic glasses crystallize before T
g

Please read up paragraph on glassy polymers → p228 in text book
Recovery, Recrystallization & Grain Growth
Cold work
↑ dislocation density
↑ point defect density
Plastic deformation in the temperature range (0.3 – 0.5) T
m
→ COLD WORK
 Point defects and dislocations have strain energy associated with them
 (1 -10) % of the energy expended in plastic deformation is stored in the
form of strain energy
) 10 10 ( ~

) 10 10 ( ~

14 12
n dislocatio

9 6
n dislocatio
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ µ µ
material Stronger material Annealed
work Cold
Cold work
↑ dislocation density
↑ point defect density
Anneal
Material tends to lose
the stored strain energy
Increase in strength
of the material
Softening of the material
Cold work Anneal
Recrystallization
Recovery
Low temperature
High temperature
Cold work Anneal
Recrystallization
Recovery
Grain growth
Cold work
↑ Hardness
↑ Strength
 Changes occur to almost all physical and mechanical properties
 X-Ray diffration
► Laue patterns of single crystals show pronounced asterism
→ due to lattice curvatures
► Debye-Scherrer photographs show line broadning
→ Residual stresses + deformations

↑ Electrical resistance
↓ Ductility
Recovery
 Recovery takes place at low temperatures of annealing
 “Apparently no change in microstructure”
 Excess point defects created during Cold work are absorbed:
► at surface or grain boundaries
► by dislocation climb
 Random dislocations of opposite sign come together and annihilate each
other
 Dislocations of same sign arrange into low energy configurations:
► Edge → Tilt boundaries
► Screw → Twist boundaries
 POLYGONIZATION
 Overall reduction in dislocation density is small
POLYGONIZATION
Bent crystal
Low angle grain boundaries
Recrystallization
 T
recrystallization
e (0.3 – 0.5) T
m

 “Nucleation” and growth of new, strain free crystals
 Nucleation of new grains in the usual sense may not be present and
grain boundary migrates into a region of higher dislocation density
 AG (recrystallization) = G (deformed material) – G (undeformed material)
 T
Recrystallization
is the temperature at which 50 % of the material
recrystallizes in 1 hour
Region of lower
dislocation density
Region of higher
dislocation density
Direction of grain
boundary migration
 Deformation ↑ ¬ recrystallization temperature (T
recrystallization
) ↓
 Initial grain size ↓ ¬ recrystallization temperature ↓
 High cold work + low initial grain size ¬ finer recrystallized grains
 ↑ cold work temperature ¬ lower strain energy stored
¬ ↑ recrystallization temperature
 Rate of recrystallization = exponential function of temperature
 T
recrystallization
= strong function of the purity of the material
T
recrystallization
(very pure materials) ~ 0.3 T
m

T
recrystallization
(impure) ~ (0.5 – 0.6) T
m

► T
recrystallization
(99.999% pure Al) ~ 75
o
C
T
recrystallization
(commercial purity) ~ 275
o
C
 The impurity atoms segregate to the grain boundary and retard their
motion → Solute drag (can be used to retain strength of materials at
high temperatures)

 The impurity atoms seggregate to the grain boundary and retard their
motion → Solute drag (can be used to retain strength of materials
at high temperatures)
 Second phase particles also pin down the grain boundary during its
migration
Hot Work and Cold Work
 Hot Work  Plastic deformation above T
Recrystallization

Cold Work  Plastic deformation below T
Recrystallization

C
o
l
d

W
o
r
k

H
o
t

W
o
r
k

Recrystallization temperature (~ 0.4 T
m
)
Grain growth
 Globally
► Driven by reduction in grain boundary energy
 Locally
► Driven by bond maximization (coordination number maximization)
Bonded to
4 atoms
Bonded to
3 atoms
Direction of grain
boundary migration
Boundary moves towards its
centre of curvature
JUMP
Cold work Recovery Recrystallization Grain growth
Tensile strength
Ductility
Electical conductivity
Internal stress