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Types of Pumps

IMT 124 PUMPS May 2008

Centrifugal Pumps
• A rotating vane disk attached to a drive shaft moves fluid without pulsation as it spins. The outlet can be restricted without damaging the pump.


Centrifugal Pumps
• A Centrifugal pump is often thought of as the simplest and most widely used of all the various pump types. A centrifugal pump has a rotating impeller, within a casing, which imparts radial velocity to the liquid, which then exits the pump by way of the discharge nozzle. The flow is smooth and will change according to the system backpressure


Bellows Pumps • Bellows—These pumps move fluid through a reciprocating bellows cavity that is coupled to a driving rod. 5 . Pumps are found in the "Metering" and "Positive Displacement" pump sections.

6 .Diaphragm Pumps • Pulsations of one or two flexible diaphragms displace liquid while check valves control the direction of the fluid flow.

Diaphragm Pumps • Diaphragm pumps are commonly referred to as mud hogs. Their names reflect their popularity for use in applications where shallow depths and slurry water render centrifugal pumps ineffective. mud hens and mud suckers. 7 .

8 .Diaphragm Pumps • A diaphragm pump provides the lowest rate of discharge and head by comparison of any contractor grade pump. • The most popular are 2 and 3 inch gasoline powered models producing flows in the range of 50 to 85 GPM.

Diaphragm Pumps • They have the ability to handle air without losing their prime and of handling water with a solid content greater than 25% by volume. 9 .

• Since there is no impeller or volute the only wear parts are the flapper (inlet and outlet) valves along with the diaphragm 10 .Diaphragm Pumps • Another design benefit is that diaphragm pumps do not run the risk of being damaged if run for long periods of time.

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14 .Drum Pumps • A motor attached to an impeller is mounted on top of a drum. The impeller pushes fluid up the tube set when submersed.

Flexible Liner Pumps • The outer surface of an inert liner and inner surface of a rotating body block create a fluid channel used to gently pump fluids without pulsation. 15 .

Flexible Impeller Elastomeric impeller traps fluid between the impeller blades and a molded housing that sweeps fluid through the pump housing. 16 .

Low investment • 17 .Recovery of product from discharge pipe • • Inexpensive .Can be installed in confined places • • Reversible . service and use • • Small dimensions vs capacity .Flexible Impeller • Simple design .Easy to select.

Extremely good self-priming capacity.Fragile and/or shear sensitive products can be handled • • Rubber impeller design .Flexible Impeller • Minimum/zero clearances . displaces air and gas positively or aerated products • • Smooth operating principle .Hard/soft solids transported through the pump without damage to pump or product 18 .

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Gear pumps are good for high system-pressure applications and are often magnetically driven.Gear Pumps • Fluid is trapped between the teeth of two or three rotating gears. 20 .

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23 .Hand Pumps • Manually powered pumps of various designs used for short term or repetitive liquid transfer applications.

Noncontaminating and easy to clean. 24 .Peristaltic (tubing) • Fluid only contacts the tubing—rollers of a motor-driven pump head push the fluid along the tubing as they rotate.

Piston Pumps • Rotating pistons of varying stroke lengths pump fluids through check valves. Good for high-pressure applications. 25 .

26 .Progressing Cavity • The cavity between a screw-style rotor and stator force high-viscosity and particulate-filled fluids through the pump.

solids. and highly viscous fluids. 27 .Rotary Lobe Pumps • Lobe-shaped rotors gently fill with and dispense fluids containing soft particles. Sanitary construction is perfect for use in the food and beverage industries.

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Circumferential Piston Pump 29 .

Rotary Vane Pumps • Operate like flexible impeller pumps but use an impeller made of a rigid material— useful for high-pressure or low-shear applications. 30 .

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32 .Submersible/Immersible • Centrifugal pumps in a specialized housing used for emptying tanks or sumps.

Sump Pumps • Are used to remove water from basements and crawl spaces in homes. • Generally power is 110 volts. they can be used for other uses. 33 . such as pumping a swimming pool or irrigating a garden. • Fairly inexpensive.

a more accurate way is to look at the GPH or.Sump Pumps • Sump pumps are generally sold according to the horsepower rating of the pump motor. Although the horsepower of the pump is a good “yardstick” to use in judging which size pump to buy. 34 . Gallons Per Hour that the unit is capable of pumping. 1/3 horsepower and ½ horsepower pumps available. You will see ¼ horsepower.

horsepower ratings are not very accurate in judging which size pump to buy 35 .000 gallons per hour and you will also see other ½ horsepower pumps that are capable of pumping over 7.Sump Pumps • For instance.500 gallons per hour. As you can see. you will find ½ horsepower sump pumps that can pump 3.

The motor on this pump is not designed to be underwater. On a separate metal rod there is a float. The entire unit usually stands about 30" tall. (Brian Simkins web site) 36 . A motor is mounted on a small pedestal. The switch will always activate before the water level comes up to the bottom of the pump. A hose or a pipe extends down from the motor to the bottom of the pit. this float moves up and down.Pedestal Pumps • One of the most common types of sump pumps is a pedestal pump. As the water level in the pit raises and lowers. it activates the motor and the water is sucked up through the hose and ejected through another pipe. This is called a float switch. When the float reaches a certain height (because the water level pushed it there).

Switch Motor Float Intake Discharge 37 .

• (Brian Simkins is a freelance writer living in Chicago. Others have a different type of float switch. He enjoys using his 14 years of home improvement experience to educate and equip new home owners. It is a much smaller unit. The electrical switch itself is encased in a hard plastic bubble. When it floats so high that it reaches a vertical position above the pump. that sits in the bottom of your sump pit. but the rod is only about 4 inches tall. the bubble floats.) 38 . Some pumps that fall within this style have a float switch on a rod just like the pedestal pump.Submersible Pumps • Another type of sump pump is a submersible pump. As the water level rises. the switch is activated and the pump kicks on. usually about 12" tall.

Discharge Float switch 39 .

Float switch Discharge 40 .

41 .Well Pumps • There are two general types of well pumps: submersible well pumps and jet pumps. and have no working parts submerged in water. and have their ejectors installed in the well itself. Deep well jet pumps on the other hand. can be used for wells up to 75 feet deep. Shallow well jet pumps are used for wells under 25 feet deep.

A small electric motor (called a driver) is installed in the well shaft. submersible well pumps may be set hundreds of feet beneath the water in a well. and an electric cable is attached to the motor. Unlike their shallow-end counterparts. which consists of a number of impellers and diffusers which spin on a common shaft (called stages). When the pump is activated. pushes water up out of the well.Well Pumps • Submersible well pumps. as their name imply. Piping is then fitted from the pump. 42 . through the length of the shaft and into the home. are used underwater in wells. usually below the pump itself. the motor.

The number of impellers and diffusers a pump has determines the head (or pressure) the pump exerts.Well Pumps • Because the diameter of wells is restrictive. the impellers have to be stacked on top of each other to exert enough pressure to force the water up through the pipe. 43 .9" in diameter and spins at about 8000 rpm. A standard 4" submersible pump measures between 24" to 48" in length.9" in diameter. and spins at 3600 rpm. 3. This is why submersible well pumps are very long. The 3" submersible pump measures 2.

com/products/ m?fuseaction=pump_series&series_id=52 3 • http://www.html 44 .Sources • • www.html • http://www.waterpumpsgpm.pumpbiz. peller_generalSPX.htm 45 .Sources • http://www.