Introduction Microprocessor

Processor 8080 8085 8086 8088 80386DX 80486DX Pentium PentiumPr o

Year 1974 1976 1978 1979 1985 1989 1993 1995

Clock

Address Data Bus Max Microprocessor age Bus Memory 16 bits 16 bits 20 bits 20 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits 36 bits 8 bits 8 bits 16 bits 8+8 bits 32 bits 32 bits 64 bits 64 bits 64KB 64KB 1 MB 1 MB 4 GB 4 GB 64 GB 64 GB

Cache ------16KB L1 16KB L1

2 MHz 5 MHz 5 – 10 MHz 5 – 10 MHz 16 – 33 MHz 25 – 50 MHz 60 – 200 MHz 166 – 300 MHz

Pentium II

1997

200 – 450 MHz
0.5 – 1 GHz 1 – 2 GHz 1 – 3 GHZ

36 bits
36 bits 36 bits 36 bits

64 bits
64 bits 64 bits 64 bits

64 GB
64 GB 64 GB 64 GB

32KB L1
32KB L1 256KB L2 64KB L1 1MB L2 64KB L1 6MB L2 (L3)

Pentium III 1999 Pentium 4 Pentium Dual Core 2000 2006

Microprocessor based personal computer systems buses Memory DRAM ROM CACHE FLASH Microprocessor 8086 8088 808386 Pentium I/O system keyboard monitor Printer DVD etc.. .

Memory map .

Memory system is divided into 3 parts TPA[Transient Program Area] System area XMS[Extended memory area] .

Architecture 0f 8086 .

Flag Register X X X X OF DF IF TF SF ZF X AF X PF X CF Six conditional flags in this group are •Carry Flag •Parity Flag •Auxiliary carry Flag •Zero Flag •Sign Flag •Over Flow Three Control Flags •Trap Flag •Interrupt Flag •Direction Flag .

Memory Organization or segmentation – Each byte in memory has a 20 bit address starting with 0 to 220-1 or 1 meg of addressable memory – Addresses are expressed as 5 hex digits from 00000 .FFFFF – A segment is a block of 64K consecutive memory bytes – Segments are identified by segment numbers 0 .FFFFh – A 16 byte block makes up a paragraph – Segments always start on paragraph boundaries – Least significant nibble of segment address will always be 0 .

– segment address defines the beginning address of any 64K-byte memory segment – offset address selects any location within the 64K byte memory segment . conventional memory.Memory Organization or segmentation • 1M byte of memory is called the real memory. or DOS memory system • All real mode memory addresses must consist of a segment address plus an offset address.

ending at location IFFFFH • 64K bytes in length – also shows how an offset address. called a displacement. of F000H selects location 1F000H in the memory .Physical Address Generation – this shows a memory segment beginning at 10000H.

Default Segment and Offset Registers .

Segments of memory 1M byte memory .

Registers of the 8086/80286 .

its data and the stack. • Facilitate the use of separate memory areas for the program. . • Multitasking becomes easy. • Permit a program and/or its data to be put into different areas of memory each time the program is executed.Advantages of Memory Segmentation • Allow the memory capacity to be 1Mb even though the addresses associated with the individual instructions are only 16 bits wide.

Depending upon their types: • Instruction types – Sequential control flow – Control Transfer . • Instructions may belong to one or more addressing modes. modes of the instns. or some instructions may not belong to any of the Addressing Modes. • Addr.Addressing Modes of 8086 • Addressing mode indicates a way of locating data or operands.

• • • • • • • • • Immediate addressing mode Relative Addressing mode Implied Addressing mode Direct addressing mode Register indirect addressing mode Based addressing mode Indexed addressing mode Based indexed addressing mode String addressing mode .

8086 Addressing Modes(Control transfer ) • Intersegment – Intersegment direct mode – Intersegment indirect mode • Intrasegment – Intrasegment direct mode – Intrasegment indirect mode • Intersegment: Location to which the control is to be transferred lies in a different segment. other than the current one. . • Intrasegment: Location lies in the same segment.

Instruction Format One byte (Implied operand) instruction OPCODE OR OPCODE REG .

• Register to register OPCODE W 1 1 REG R/M • Register to/from memory without displacement OPCODE W MOD REG R/M .

• Register to/from memory with displacement OPCODE W MOD REG R/M Lower byte displacement Higher byte displacement • Immediate operand to register OPCODE W 1 1 REG R/M Lower byte data Higher byte data .

• Immediate operand to memory location OPCODE W MOD REG R/M Lower byte displacement Lower byte data Higher byte displacement Higher byte data .

Segment Override prefix • Special one byte instruction appears before opcode • Helps to deviate from default segment • Format of SOP is 0 0 1 REG 1 1 0 where REG indicates segment register used Ex:MOV AX. DS:[BP .

Instruction execution timing Instruction execution timing Basic execution timing Time required to calculate effective address .

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