IMPACT OF UNTREATED WASTEWATER ON BIODIVERSITY

“Man despite his artistic pretensions ,
his extreme sophistication & many accomplishments, owes
Presented by

the basic fact of his existence to the 6 inches of topsoil & water present in the rivers , oceans and lakes”

Manpreet kaur Naini Burman Pushpa Mishra Priya Dahliya GARGI COLLEGE , D.U.

Contents
WASTEWATER –sources , components , link to humans BIODIVERSITY -definition,its importance & its relevance to humans HOW WASTEWATER EFFECTS BIODIVERSITY MAJOR EFFECT ON – Wetlands , Mangroves ,Coral reeves , Human beings WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT CONCLUSION REFERENCES

Wastewater
Wastewater is any water that has been effected adversely by anthropogenic factors. It comprises of liquid waste discharges containing• • • • • •

Living organisms, Pathogens, Organic matter Inorganic Nutrients, Some solid waste particles Wastewater also includes storm runoff.

Wastewater ( CONTD )
The two main source of waste water generation will be1) Non-Residential sources or commercial or industrial sources 2) Residential There are two types of domestic sewage: • Black water • Grey water

Biodiversity
Biodiversity is the verity of – plant , animal & lower life forms their genes & ecosystems of which they together form the basis of biodiversity. Hence it is something that is all around us making us a part of it.  Few hotspots effected by waste water pollutant runoff covered in this presentation arewetlands mangroves coral reeves marine animals & most importantly human beings.
Ref: http://www.vub.ac.be/APNA/staff/FDG/cour ses/TCB/biodiversity.jpg

Importance of Biodiversity
At the ecosystem level, biodiversity provides the conditions and drives the processes that sustain the global economy – and our very survival as a species. The benefits and services provided by ecosystems include: Generation of soils and 8. Prevention and mitigation of maintenance of soil quality natural disasters Maintenance of air quality Maintenance of water quality Pest control Detoxification and decomposition of wastes Pollination and crop production Climate stabilization
9. Provision of food security 10. Provision of health care 11. Income generation 12. Spiritual / cultural value

• • • • • • •

How wastewater effects Biodiversity
Due to the drainage of wastewater from different sources in to the main water bodies, the varied life forms are effected in the following wayIncrease in the B.O.D. & C.O.D. content of water bodies Increase in nutrient content- algal bloom & eutrophication Increase of soil deposition Formation of a film on top of the water body Some compounds dissociate in water yielding toxic components

    

EFFECT ON Wetlands- Algal bloom caused by waste
water discharges by industries and domestic sources the water color of the wetlands has turned greenish and has also increased the turbidity of water , which directly influences the light penetration and affects the production efficiencies. ecosystems. Wastewater discharges cause asphyxiation and clogging of roots & lenticels ; accumulation of pesticides is lethal to mangrove wildlife

Trimmu wetland Punjab, India Ref: www.panda.org

Mangroves- Mangroves are highly fragile

Mangrove forest, Bhiterkanika, Orissa, India. Ref: www.earthisland.org/map

EFFECT ON •Coral reeves- Wastewater
pollution causes – coral bleaching, raising of temperature of water , epizootics.
Brain coral showing bleaching

Marine animals

A part of South-East Asia's coral reef Ref:

news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1899236.stm

Also Gangetic dolphins - these majestic animals also called “tigers of Indian rivers “ are facing extinction thanks to the excessive wastewater pollution which chokes their lungs , promotes thick algal growth prevent these animals to reach the surface in order to breathe.

Gangetic Dolphins

EFFECT ON Like Sea turtle – these are rare wonders OLIVE RIDLEY SEA of nature , which may live upto 500yrs TURTLE Ref: left undisturbed ,yet due to the effect of wildecology.ifcnr.com/ wastewater their productivity reduces, P ictures/oliveridley.jpg their young ones are born with defects. Other Benthic life forms requiring light to assimilate food, are effected as the algal slimy layer prevent the light from penetrating to the lower reaches thereby causing their death.

•Human being – The pollutants in wastewater are linked to various health
problems.Worldwide, over 1.2 billion people are at risk due to the lack of sanitary waste disposal and clean water for drinking, cooking,and washing. Some 60% of all infant mortality is linked to infectious and parasitic diseases , most of which are water-related.Providing clean drinking water and ensuring proper sanitation facilities would save millions of lives by reducing the dominance of water related diseases.

Effect of various pollutants on human health
Heavy metals- As,Pb, Cr,Cd,Hg Detergents and surfactants Chlorinated solvents Radioactive waste
Ref: pubs.usgs.gov/circ/circ113 3/images/fig21.jpeg

Common Chemical water quality indicator
Available oxygen pH Turbidity Toxic organic compounds Heavy metals nutrients

Wastewater management
Due to the increasing awareness , now people are thinking of curbing this pollution by 4) Preventing the runoff of storm water• • Recharge pits Natural boundaries
Source: Ground water department, A.P.

2) Promoting more seepage into soil • By having grass pavers

3) Treating this wastewater before releasing it into the water bodies

Sewage treatment

Preliminary Treatment
Screening Grit Chamber

2.

Secondary Treatment
Aerobic Method Anaerobic Method

3.

Tertiary treatment
Desalination Removal of excess of inorganic Nitrogen and phosphorus Removal of soluble non biodegradable organic compounds Disinfection

Sewage treatment process

Wastewater management
4) Innovative method of managing this water & creating new use for it. 5) Water conservation at individual level :

FILL THE TUB

STOP DRIPS

USE HALF FLUSH

FILL THE MUG

TURN OFF SHOWER

USE FULL LOAD

Humans And Nature
Nature is both perfect and strong, But it never dues anybody wrong! Humans are full of malice and revolt, Due to which they are always at fault! We think we are always right, This leads us to test our might! Our arrogances takes us to imaginary lets, But the downfall provides us a real insight! Nature is pure and simple, And by nature is never harmful! We humans should stop polluting the nature, To preserve it's attribute of being merciful! Beautiful faces mask ugly thoughts, Valiant lose battles never fought! Nature is for centuries honest and kind, Distributing bounties whether you seek it or not... Ayesha Raoof

References
R. Rajgopalan, 2006, Environmental studies, Oxford University Press. E.P.Odum, 2005, Fundamentals Of Ecology ,Thompson & Brooke sole Publication Angermeier, P. L. and Karr, J. R. "Biological integrity vs. biological diversity as policy directives: Protecting biotic resources", Bioscience 44, 1994, 690-697. Callicott, J. B. "On the intrinsic value of nonhuman species", in The preservation of species: the value of biological diversity (ed. B. G Norton). Princeton N .J. Princeton University Press, 1986. Callicott, J. B., Crowder, L. B. and Mumford, K. "Current normative concepts in conservation", Conservation Biology 13, 1999, 22-35 Ehrenfeld, D. "Why put a value on biodiversity?" In Wilson E.O. editor. Biodiversity. Washington DC National Academy Press, 1988. Faith, D. P. "Phylogenetic pattern and the quantification of organismal biodiversity", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B. 345, 1994, 45-58 Biodiversity, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/biodiversity.htm, Effect of wastewater on biodiversity , http://www.globalissues.org/env.issues/biodiversity.asp Mangroves, http://www.mangroveindia.org , Biodiversity,www.unep.org , Coral reefs,http://psbsgi1.nesdis.noaa.gov , http://www.undp.org/biodiversity/biodiversitycd/frontPage.htm