THE LIFE OF A RIVER

WATERS JOURNEY FROM SOURCE TO MOUTH ~ AN EXPLANATION OF PROCESSES AND FEATURES

What happens when water reaches the ground? PRECIPITATION

CONDENSATION

LAND
EVAPORATION

SEA

A SIMPLIFIED WATER CYCLE

air etc.g.g. Put the correct definition to the given word~one has been done for you .clouds. ground.Key Words EVAPORATION When water vapour changes to liquid (cooling) CONDENSATION Water in any form that falls to earth e. rain PRECIPITATION RUN-OFF When the ground water moves through the land When water vapour changes to liquid (warming) PERCOLATION The water that is stored within the ground GROUND WATER Water that is stored e. WATER STORES Water that moves directly along the ground without penetrating.

Detailed Water Cycle .

Completed Water Cycle .

River Basins Key Words • • • • • • Where a river begins is called the source. Where the two rivers join is called the confluence Where the river flows into the sea is called the mouth. The area drained by a river is called the drainage basin. The ‘line’ that separates two drainage basins is called the watershed. A small river meeting a larger river is called a tributary. .

THE LONG PROFILE OF A RIVER Upper Course SOURCE Middle Course Lower course MOUTH .

Rocks get smaller by chemical action Rocks such as chalk and Limestone Rocks get smaller when knocked together .Hydraulic Power Corrasion Corrosion Attrition Key Words Water/debris is forced into cracks Rocks /stones erode bed and sides of river bank.

The Upper Course of a river Processes of erosion • Hydraulic power This is the force of the water on the bed and banks of the river. • Corrasion When the river is particularly full. These rub against the bed and banks of the river and wear them away. powerful when in flood. . the force of the water removes material from the bed and banks of the river. pebbles and boulders are carried along by the water. The process is called abrasion.

Processes of Erosion Corrosion River water sometimes causes some rock to slowly dissolve. limestone dissolves in slightly acid water and is carried away in solution (as a liquid) as calcium hydrogen carbonate). Eventually the particles are reduced to sand and silt-sized particles . The rough edges become smooth. (e. forming smaller rounded material.collide and rub against each other. Attrition The pebbles and small rocks being carried by the riverthe load.g. breaking up into smaller and smaller pieces.

•A gorge and waterfall have steep sides .Features of the upper course of a river The main features of a Waterfall are: •A steep drop in the river ~ called a high head of water •A plunge pool at the base •Hard. (softer rock the quickest) •The river moves back as the erosion takes place. Waterfalls and gorges are formed over a long period of time they are characterised by the following: •Bands of hard and soft rock being eroded at different rates. resistant rock at the top~ the cap rock •Softer rock below that are undercut. this is known as recession.

Softer less resistant rock is easily eroded by fast flowing water. Hard cap rock Softer rock is undercut by backwash from falling water (resistant) .

Deep plunge pool at base of waterfall Undercutting has taken place where softer rock is found .

Waterfall over 150 metres high Deep plunge pool at base of waterfall .

The middle course of a river Key words Traction -large boulders roll along the river bed Saltation -smaller pebbles are bounced along the river bed. picked up and then dropped as the flow of the river changes .

it often cannot be seen. giving the river a brown appearance. such as limestone and chalk. . Solution -minerals.Key words continued Suspension -the finer sand and silt-sized particles are carried along in the flow. are dissolved in the water and carried along in the flow.

The middle course of a river •Meanders Deposition on inside bend Erosion on outside bend .

inside bend. erosion. river cliff. . deepest water and fastest current. deposition.Feature of the middle course A Meander (cross-section) A B A B Label the diagram with the following words and statements:- Outside bend.

river cliff. deepest water and fastest current. inside bend. deposition.Feature of the middle course A Meander (cross-section) A B A B Outside bend. erosion. .

The lower course of a river •Ox-bow lakes •Flood plains .

River straightens at this point and cuts off the ox-bow Steep undercut bank Oxbow or ‘cut-off ’ lake New course of the river Part of the flood plain .