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Communication of Birds & Animals

Presented by: Group 3

• Metacommunications: signals that modify the meaning of subsequent signals.• • Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. Animal communication Introduction . The best known example is the play face and tail signals in dogs. The study of animal communication — sometimes called Zoosemiotics. which indicate that a subsequent aggressive signal is part of a play fight rather than a serious aggressive episode.

Forms of communication • • • • • • • Gesture Facial expression Gaze following Vocalization Olfactory communication Bioluminescence Electrocommunication .

Functions of communication • • • • • • Agonistic interaction Mating rituals Ownership/territorial Food-related signals Alarm calls Meta-communications .

or "I'm aware and responsive if you want my attention") • Statement of interest ("I want that (food/toy/activity). are you?") Brief acknowledgement ("I hear you".Interpretation of animal communication • • • • • • • • • Excitement Anticipation Playfulness Contentment/enjoyment Relaxation or anxiety Questioning another animal or a human as to intentions Tentative role assessment on meeting another animal Reassurance ("I'm hoping to be friendly. if you're willing") • Uncertainty/apprehension • Submissive placation (if worried by a more dominant animal) .

• Intraspecies communication: • The majority of animal communication occurs within a single species. and this is the context in which it has been most intensively studied. . • Most of the forms and functions of communication described above are relevant to intra-species communication.

and smell. echolocation. body language. .• Interspecies communication • Many examples of communication take place between members of different species. Animals communicate to other animals with various signs: visual. sound.

where a predator intercepts the message being conveyed to conspecifics. . that fits the definition of "communication" given above. This type of communication is known as interceptive eavesdropping.• Prey to predator: • If a prey animal moves or makes a noise in such a way that a predator can detect and capture it.

• Predator to prey: • Some predators communicate to prey in ways that change their behaviour and make them easier to catch. and in so doing are perfectly placed for the angler fish to eat them. smaller fish try to take the lure. A well-known example is the angler fish. which has a fleshy growth protruding from its forehead and dangling in front of its jaws. . in effect deceiving them.

And bird calls cannot be varied to produce variations of meaning. another during used just before takeoff.Animal Systems of Communication • Birds have two types of sound signals--calls and songs • Bird calls consist of one or more short notes and seem to be instinctive responses to danger. one to announce that a predator is nearby--like an owl in a tree-. These calls seem intended to coordinate group activity in specific situations. flocking and a few other basic situations.and the other to announce that a predator is soaring overhead. and one just before landing at a nesting site. finite set which can't be increased. nesting. Sparrows have two types of danger calls. The meanings of these signs constitute a small. . The English sparrow has three flight calls-.

Bird songs are limited to these and only these functions. . Although bird songs are longer than bird calls.• Bird songs are used primarily by males to attract mates or establish territory. their internal elements aren't separable into meaningful units and cannot be rearranged to produce new songs.

.• In the 1960's Karl von Frisch discovered that the Italian honeybee performs three types of dances on the wall of the hive to communicate to other bees the source of nectar.

direction from the hive is not indicated.• The round dance is performed to indicate that the source of nectar is within 20 feet of the hive. . the richness of the source is indicated by intensity of movement and by the number of repetition.

again. the richness of the source is indicated by intensity of movement.• The sickle dance is performed to indicate that the source of nectar is within 20-60 feet from the hive. . the angle with respect to gravity denotes the direction in relation to the sun.

• The tail-wagging dance is performed to indicate that the source of nectar is beyond 60 feet from the hive (80 feet in the Austrian honeybee). It imparts all the information of the sickle dance plus indicates the precise distance by the number of repetitions per minute--the slower the repetition the farther the distance. .

• Elephant Communication system .

. Entwining trunks are also made during mild competition.• Touching is an important form of communication among elephants. Individuals greet one another by stroking or wrapping around each other's trunks.

while those that accept a challenge will position their ears in a V shape. Excited elephants may additionally raise their trunks. as well as flatten their ears against their necks. Submissive elephants will lower their heads and trunks. They will try to appear more threatening by raising their heads and spreading their ears. as well as throwing dust and vegetation. Elephants are usually bluffing when performing these actions. mostly in agonistic situations.• Elephants also communicate with visual displays. . They may also add to the display by shaking their heads and snapping their ears.