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LEGAL & ETHICAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEM “FREEDOM of INFORMATION ACT”

ATIQAH NUR BT UMAR NURUL HIDAYAH BINTI ZAKARIA 2010609482 2010434238

DEFINITION

including frequently requested records.The FOIA is a law that gives you the right to access information from the federal government. . The FOIA also requires that agencies automatically disclose certain information. agencies must disclose any information that is requested – unless that information is protected from public disclosure. It is often described as the law that keeps citizens in the know about their government. Under the FOIA. Act does not apply to Congress or Federal courts state or local government agencies private businesses or individuals Over 90 countries around the world have implemented some form of freedom of information legislation.

FOIA in IRISH  The FOI Act was enacted in April 1997 with an in-built provision for its commencement one year following the date of enactment (April 1998) Freedom of Information Act 1997 freeact.pdf Freedom of Information (Amendment) Act 2003 3 foi-amendment-act-2003.pdf .

Delegation of certain functions of heads. 4. Amendment of section 4 (delegation of certain functions of heads) of Principal Act. Interpretation. 2. PART I Preliminary and General Section 1. Citation and commencement. Amendment of section 2 (interpretation) of Principal Act. . Expenses. 3.Differences Freedom of Information Act 1997 Freedom of Information (Amendment) Act 2003 2. 3. Regulations. 5.

PART II Access to Records 6. 13. Deferral of access to records. Extension of time for consideration of requests under section 7. 11. 10. . 9. 12. 10. 14. Decisions on requests under section 7 and notification of decisions. Publication of information about public bodies. Amendment of section 15 (publication of information about public bodies) of Principal Act. Review by heads of decisions. 8. Amendment of section 10 (refusal on administrative grounds to grant requests under section 7) of Principal Act. Amendment of section 7 (requests for access to records) of Principal Act. Requests for access to records. Amendment of section 14 (review by heads of decisions) of Principal Act. 7. Right of access to records. Access to parts of records. Amendment of section 13 (access to parts of records) of Principal Act. Manner of access to records. 5. 8. 4. Amendment of section 8 (decisions on requests under section 7 and notification of decisions) of Principal Act. Refusal on administrative grounds to grant requests under section 7. 9. 7. 15. 6. Amendment of section 6 (right of access to records) of Principal Act.

. Amendment of records relating to personal information. Publication of information regarding rules and practices in relation to certain decisions by public bodies. 17. Right of person to information regarding acts of public bodies affecting the person.16. Amendment of section 16 (publication of information regarding rules and practices in relation to certain decisions by public bodies) of Principal Act. Amendment of section 17 (amendment of records relating to personal information) of Principal Act. Amendment of section 18 (right of person to information regarding acts of public bodies affecting the person) of Principal Act. 12. 11. 18. 13.

Amendment of section 20 (deliberations of public bodies) of Principal Act. 25. defence and international relations) of Principal Act. Amendment of section 23 (law enforcement and public safety) of Principal Act. 21. Security.PART III Exempt Records 19. Amendment of section 22 (parliamentary. court and certain other matters) of Principal Act. Amendment of section 24 (security. 16. 18. court and certain other matters. 17. 24. defence and international relations. 20. 15. 20. Deliberations of public bodies. Amendment of section 21 (functions and negotiations of public bodies) of Principal Act. . Meetings of the Government. 19. Amendment of section 19 (meetings of the Government) of Principal Act. 22. Parliamentary. Law enforcement and public safety. Conclusiveness of certain decisions pursuant to sections 23 and 24. 23. Amendment of section 25 (conclusiveness of certain decisions pursuant to sections 23 and 24) of Principal Act. Functions and negotiations of public bodies.

27 or 28 applies. 30. 22. Financial and economic interests of the State and public bodies. .26. Information obtained in confidence. Amendment of section 26 (information obtained in confidence) of Principal Act. 27 or 28 applies) of Principal Act. 27. Amendment of section 28 (personal information) of Principal Act. Amendment of section 27 (commercially sensitive information) of Principal Act. 29. 23. Procedure in relation to certain requests under section 7 to which section 26. Personal information. Research and natural resources. Enactments relating to non-disclosure of records. 21. 32. 24. Commercially sensitive information. Amendment of section 29 (procedure in relation to certain requests under section 7 to which section 26. 31. 28.

35. Amendment of section 33 (establishment of office of Information Commissioner) of Principal Act. 34. 40. of Act. Review of operation of Act and investigations by Commissioner. Establishment of office of Information Commissioner. Amendment of section 34 (review by Commissioner of decisions) of Principal Act. 36.. . Requests for further information by Commissioner. Publication of commentaries by Commissioner on practical application. 26. Review by Commissioner of decisions.PART IV The Information Commissioner 33. 39. etc. 37. 38. Reports of Commissioner 25. Commissioner to encourage publication of information by public bodies. Powers of Commissioner.

46. Immunity from legal proceedings. Amendment of section 46 (restriction of Act) of Principal Act. Amendment of Official Secrets Act. 30. Precautions by High Court and Commissioner against disclosure of certain information. 42. 29. Amendment of section 47 (fees) of Principal Act. 48. Restriction of Act. 44.PART V Miscellaneous 41. 47. 1963. Appeal to High Court. 43. 28. Stay on certain decisions. Fees. Amendment of section 43 (precautions by High Court and Commissioner against disclosure of certain information) of Principal Act. Decisions deemed to have been made in certain cases. 27. 45. . Amendment of section 42 (appeal to High Court) of Principal Act.

CASE .

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. 157 (2003) Exemption 7(C) encompasses the personal privacy rights of a deceased individual as well as the related privacy rights of his or her surviving family members. 541 U. When the public interest in a FOIA request reflects an attempt to show that government officials acted improperly in performing their duties. the requester must produce evidence of such impropriety sufficient to convince a reasonable person in order to overcome the personal privacy rights cited.CASE 1 National Archives and Records Administration v.S. Favish.

But there are two Freedom of Information in state of Malaysia : 1.FOI Act in Malaysia Malaysia does not have Freedom of Information Law at the federal level. 2. The Selangor Freedom of Information Enactment 2010 The Penang Freedom of Information Enactment 2010 . The single biggest legislative barrier to this is the 1972 Official Secrets Act (OSA).

In addition there to. **The cause of action here is not a case of denial of access to water. If the water tariff is increased and they have to pay more money for water. the applicants do not have an alternative access to treated water. water being essential for life is part of a constitutional right which can be implied under the Federal Constitution. The applicants' interest clearly was in the tariffs to be imposed in respect of water supplied.CASES Each and every applicant is a paying water consumer within the area covered by the concession agreement. With SYABAS now in monopoly over the distribution of treated water in the concession area. . they have no real choice to refuse to pay because there is no alternative supplier of water available. but an alleged right of access to documents that had been requested for.

to provide to every individual an opportunity to access to information made by every department of the State” . I therefore hold the applicants have established they had a locus standi to bring this action.“On the facts and circumstances of this case. it is obvious that the applicants had a real and genuine interest in the subject matter. They are adversely affected by the increase in water tariff and in this regard there is a direct nexus with the decision of the 1st respondent's.” In Malaysia. the Senior Federal Council (SFC) made reference to the preamble to the Freedom of Information (State of Selangor) Bill 2010 an Enactment to "enhance disclosure of information for the public interest.

(2) If the information sought to be accessed by any person is contained in a document disclosure of which is subject to any written law.Section 5 of the Bill reads Access to information (1) Any person may be given access to information made by every department. access to such information shall be subject to such written law .

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