You are on page 1of 51

Electronic Instrumentation

Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
1

Signal Processing Manipulation
and Transmission
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
2
Signal Conditioning Circuits
 Why do we need to do signal conditioning?
Well consider a sensor called a
thermocouple. A thermocouple is simply two
dissimilar wires joined together at a point
called a junction. At the junction, a voltage
potential will form that is a function of the
temperature of the junction. As a result, these
sensors are frequently used in making digital
thermometers.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
3
 The typical voltage level for the junction is on
the order of less than 10 millivolts. Clearly, that’s
not much! But think back to the lab where you
hooked a wire to an oscilloscope and observed
noise from the florescent fixtures in lab. You
may not have noticed the amplitude of this
noise, but it can easily be on the order of 100 or
more millivolts. That means that signal noise, in
this example, is actually ten times greater than
the signal itself!
 How could we possibly measure the signal we
want (from the thermocouple) when we have ten-
times more signal noise??
 ANSWER: WE CAN’T!
 So the key is to perform signal conditioning
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
4
Signal amplifications
 Signal amplification is carried out when the
typical signal level of a measurement transducer
is considered to be too low.
 Amplification by analog means is carried out by
an operational amplifier.
 Normally requires to have a high input
impedance so that loading effect on the
transducer output signal is minimized.
 When amplifying the output signal from
accelerometers and some optical detectors, the
amplifier must have a high frequency response,
to avoid distortion of the output reading.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
5
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
6
Instrumentation Amplifier
 Some applications requiring the amplification
of very low-level signals, a special type of
amplifier known as an instrumentation
amplifier is used.
 The first advantage is differential input
impedance is much higher.
 Common mode rejection capability is much
better.

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
7
Instrumentation Amplifier
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
8
Signal attenuation
 The progressive reduction in {amplitude} of a
signal as it travels farther from the point of
origin.
 One method of attenuating signals by analog
means is to use a potentiometer connected in
a voltage-dividing circuit.

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
9
Voltage divider circuit
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
10
Signal linearization
The transfer function for many electronic
devices, which relates the input to output,
contains a nonlinear factor. In most cases
this factor is small enough to be ignored.
However, in some applications it must be
compensated either in hardware or software.
Thermocouples, for example, have a
nonlinear relationship from input temperature
to output voltage, severe enough to require
compensation.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
11
Example
 Light intensity transducers typically have an
exponential relationship between the output and
the input light intensity.
V = K exp (-alpha Q)
 If the diode is placed between the input and
output terminals of the amplifier the relationship
is
V = C log (V1)
 Now if the output of the light transducer is
conditioned by an amplifier, the voltage level of
the processed signal is given by
V = C log (K) – alpha CQ
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
12
Bias removal
 Sometimes either because of the nature of
the measurement transducer itself, or as a
result of the other signal conditioning
operations, a bias exists in the output signal.
 This can be expressed mathematically
Y = Kx + C
 Analog processing consists of using an
operational amplifier connected in a
differential amplification mode.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
13
Filters - Introduction
 Filters are circuits that are capable of passing
signals within a band of frequencies while
rejecting or blocking signals of frequencies
outside this band. This property of filters is also
called “frequency selectivity”.
 Filter circuits built using components such as
resistors, capacitors and inductors only are
known as passive filters.
 Active filters on the other hand often employ
transistors or op-amps in addition to resistors
and capacitors




Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
14
Advantages of Active Filters over
Passive Filters
 Active filters can be designed to provide
required gain, and hence no attenuation as
in the case of passive filters
 No loading problem, because of high input
resistance and low output resistance of op-
amp.
 Active Filters are cost effective as a wide
variety of economical op-amps are
available.

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
15
Basic Filter Responses
 Low Pass Filter Characteristics
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
16
High Pass Filter Characteristics
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
17
Band Pass Filter Characteristics
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
18
Band Reject Filter Characteristics
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
19
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
20
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
21
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
22
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
23
Active filters
 Active filters are mainly used in
communication and signal processing circuits.
They are also employed in a wide range of
applications such as entertainment, medical
electronics, etc.
Most commonly used active filters:
 Low pass filters
 High pass filters
 Band pass filters
 Band reject filters
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
24
 Each of these filters can be built using op-amp
as the active element and resistors and
capacitors as the passive elements (frequency
selective part). Better filter performance is
obtained by employing op-amps with higher
slew rates and higher gain-bandwidths.
 The filtering behaviour of the circuit is best
represented by the frequency response
characteristics of the circuit, which shows the
variation of the filter circuit gain with respect to
operating frequency.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
25
Filter Design Criterion
Pass Band Gain

 With active filters, it is possible to achieve a
pass band gain higher than 1. Most active filters
employ an amplifier which determines the pass
band gain of the filter.
 Filters with a flat pass-band gain are commonly
used, and such a response is provided by
Butterworth filters. An another class of filters
called chebyshev filters, provide a ripple (or
overshoots in) pass-band gain.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
26
Cut-off Frequencies
 The cut-off frequencies fH and fL are determined
by the component values of the capacitors and
resistors in the filter circuit.

Roll-off Rate
 Roll-off rate of a filter is the rate at which the
gain of the filter changes in the stop-band.
Higher the roll-off rate, better the frequency
selection! The roll-off rate is determined by the
order of the filter. For instance, a first order filter
gives 20 dB/decade roll off, whereas a second
order filter gives 40 dB/decade roll off.

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
27
First Order Low Pass Filter
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
28
Derivation of Transfer
Function
The RC network behaves as a voltage divider supplied by v
i
, and
hence the voltage at the non-inverting terminal of the op-amp is
given as:

i
C
C
v
jX R
jX
v
÷
÷
=
+
Where
fC π 2 j
1
jX and 1 j
C
= ÷ ÷ =
fRC π 2 j 1
v
v
i
+
=
+
The eqn for v
+
then reduces to:
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
29
Where,
We know that the output of an op-amp non-
inverting amplifier is given by:
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = v
R
R
1 v
1
F
o
Substituting for v
+
from the previous equation,
i
1
F
o
v
fRC π 2 j 1
1
R
R
1 v
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
( )
H
F
i
o
f f j 1
A
v
v
+
=
RC π 2
1
f
H
=
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
30
filter the of gain band - pass
R
R
1 A
1
F
F
= + =
signal input the of frequency the is f
f
H
= high cut-off frequency of the filter
The gain magnitude and phase angle eqns for
the filter can be obtained as
( )
2
H
F
i
o
f f 1
A
v
v
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷
H
1
f
f
tan | and
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
31
The operation of the low-pass filter can be
verified from the gain magnitude equation:
F
i
o
A
v
v
~
1. At very low frequencies, that is f < f
H
,
F
F
i
o
A 707 0
2
A
v
v
. = =
2. At cut-off frequency, that is f = f
H
,
F
i
o
A
v
v
<
3. At higher frequencies, that is f > f
H
,
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
32
Roll-off Rate

 From the gain magnitude equation, we see
that, if the frequency is increased 10 fold (1
decade), the voltage gain is divided by 10. In
other words the gain decreases 20 dB (= 20
log 10) each time the frequency is increased
by 10. Hence the roll-off rate of the first order
filter in the stop band is 20 dB/decade.
 At cut-off frequency, fH, the gain falls by 3 dB
(= 20 log 0.707).
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
33
Example: Design a first order low-pass filter with a cut-off
frequency at 1 KHz and pass-band gain of 2. Draw the frequency
response of the circuit.

.
Assume, C = 0.01 µF
KHz 1
RC π 2
1
f
H
= =
O = K 92 15 R .
To design for:
1. fH = 1 KHz
2. AF = 2
3. First order low-pass filter

1. From the specified cut-off frequency
F) 10 x Hz)(0.01 π(10 2
1
C πf 2
1
R
6 3
H
÷
= =
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
34
2. From the specified pass-band gain

2
R
R
1 A
1
F
F
= + =
This implies, RF/R1= 1, or RF = R1
Assume, R
F
= R
1
= 10KO
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
35
The designed low pass filter circuit is shown
in figure
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
36
Second Order Filters
 Second order filters provide 40 dB/decade
roll-off in the stop-band, and hence perform
better frequency selection than the first order
type.
 With second order, and higher-order filters,
we can obtain interesting frequency
responses. Consider the two frequency
responses shown in figure

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
37
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
38
 Butterworth filters gives us a reasonably flat
gain in the pass-band, whereas the
chebyshev filters show a ripple or overshoot
in the frequency response. The trade-off is
that at the cut-off frequency, chebyshev filter
shows a higher roll-off rate.
 These frequency response types are
determined the damping factor of the filter
circuits.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
39
Damping Factor
 The damping factor (DF) of
an active filter circuit
determines which response
characteristics the filter
exhibits – whether,
butterworth or chebyshev or
others.
 The damping factor is
determined by the negative
feedback circuit and is
defined by the following
equation:

1
F
R
R
2 DF ÷ =
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
40
To achieve a second-order
butterworth response, for
example, the damping factor
must be 1.414. Therefore, to
implement this damping
factor, the feedback resistor
ratio must be

414 1 2 DF 2
R
R
1
F
. ÷ = ÷ =
Hence, for a second-order butterworth response, RF = 0.586R1
586 0
R
R
1
F
. =
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
41
Signal manipulation
To complete the discussion on analog signal
processing techniques, mention must also be
made of certain other special purpose
devices and circuits used to manipulate
signals.
 Voltage to current conversion
 Current to voltage conversion
 Signal integration

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
42
Signal manipulation (Continued)
 Voltage follower (Pre-amplifier)
 Voltage comparator
 Signal addition
 Signal multiplication
 Sample and hold circuits
 Analog to digital conversion
 Digital to analog conversion

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
43
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0 2 4 6 8 10
sampling time, t
k
[ms]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
t
s
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0 2 4 6 8 10
sampling time, t
k
[ms]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
t
s
Analog & digital signals
Continuous function V of
continuous variable t (time,
space etc) : V(t).
Analog
Discrete function V
k
of
discrete sampling variable t
k
,
with k = integer: V
k =
V(t
k
).
Digital
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0 2 4 6 8 10
time [ms]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Uniform (periodic) sampling.
Sampling frequency f
S
= 1/ t
S
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
44
Digital vs analog processing
Digital Signal Processing (DSPing)
• More flexible.
• Often easier system upgrade.
• Data easily stored.
• Better control over accuracy
requirements.
• Reproducibility.

Advantages
• A/D & signal processors speed:
wide-band signals still difficult to
treat (real-time systems).
• Finite word-length effect.
• Obsolescence (analog
electronics has it, too!).
Limitations
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
45
DSPing: aim & tools
Software
• Programming languages: Pascal, C / C++ ...
• “High level” languages: Matlab, Mathcad, Mathematica…
• Dedicated tools (ex: filter design s/w packages).
Applications
• Predicting a system‟s output.
• Implementing a certain processing task.
• Studying a certain signal.
• General purpose processors (GPP), µ-controllers.
• Digital Signal Processors (DSP).
• Programmable logic ( PLD, FPGA ).
Hardware real-time
DSPing
Fast
Faster
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
46
Digital system example
ms
V
A
N
A
L
O
G

D
O
M
A
I
N


ms
V
Filter
Antialiasing

k
A
D
I
G
I
T
A
L

D
O
M
A
I
N


A/D


k
A
Digital
Processing

ms
V
A
N
A
L
O
G

D
O
M
A
I
N


D/A


ms
V
Filter
Reconstruction
Sometimes steps missing
- Filter + A/D
(ex: economics);
- D/A + filter
(ex: digital output wanted).
General scheme
Important
Digital
Processing
Filter
Antialiasing

A/D
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
47
Digital system implementation
• Sampling rate.
• Pass / stop bands.
KEY DECISION POINTS:
Analysis bandwidth, Dynamic range
• No. of bits. Parameters.
1
2
3
Digital
Processing

A/D

Antialiasing
Filter
ANALOG INPUT
DIGITAL OUTPUT
• Digital format.
What to use for processing?
See slide “DSPing aim & tools”
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
48
Sampling
How fast must we sample a continuous
signal to preserve its info content?
Ex: train wheels in a movie.
25 frames (=samples) per second.
Frequency misidentification due to low sampling frequency.
Train starts wheels „go‟ clockwise.
Train accelerates wheels „go‟ counter-clockwise.
Why?
* Sampling: independent variable (ex: time) continuous ÷ discrete.
Quantisation: dependent variable (ex: voltage) continuous ÷ discrete.
Here we’ll talk about uniform sampling.
*
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
49
Signal Transmission
 There is a necessity in many measurement system to
transmit measurement signals over quite large distances
from the point of measurement to the place where the
signals are recorded and/or used in a process control
system.
 This creates Several problems for which a solution must be
found
 Difficulties associated with long distance signal
transmission include serious contamination of the
measurement signal by Noise
 Radiated electromagnetic fields from electrical machinery
and power cables, induced fields through wiring loops and
spikes on the ac power supply
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
50
Performance parameters
 Signal amplification
Amplification of the signal prior to transmission is essential
if a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio is to be obtained after
transmission.
 Shielding
Shielding provides a high degree of noise protection,
especially against capacitive-induced noise due to proximity
of signal wires to high current power conductors.
 Current loop transmission
The signal attenuation effect of conductor resistance can be
minimized if varying voltage signals are transmitted as
varying current signals.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob
51
 Voltage to frequency conversion
Better immunity to noise can be obtained in
signal transmission if the signal is transmitted in
a digital format.
 Fiber optic transmission
Noise corruption of signals is almost eliminated
by the use of fiber optic transmission cables, but
there is a cost penalty associated with this
because of the higher cost of the fiber optic
system.