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Well Logging

. • Oldest and most used methods that depends on the geophysical properties of rocks. • Good when surface outcrops are not available.Practical definition of a log • Log is an indirect measurement of formation properties exposed by the well‐bore acquired by lowering a device or a combination of devices in the well bore.

.• Seismic can be used to determine the subsurface structure but a direct sample of the rock is needed to be sure of the lithology. • The most practical way is to drill a well and record all the useful information possible from a core. • Continuous core recovery is far too expensive and is not done except when great detail is needed.

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Objectives • To give an insight in the basic well logging methods used to derive petrophysical properties for hydrocarbon exploration • Well logs provide continuous. in situ measurements of parameters related to porosity. presence of hydrocarbons. lithology. and other related rock properties of interest .

• The first commercial electrical resistivity tool in 1929 was used in Venezuela. USA and Indonesia. Fomation Density in 1960’s. • SP was run along with resistivity first time in 1931 • Schlumberger developed the first continuous recording in 1931 • GR and Neutron logs was started in 1941 • Microresistivity array dipmeter and lateralog were first time introduced in 1950’s • The first induction tool was used in 1956 followed by Formation tester in 1957.Well Logging History • The first electrical log was introduced in 1927 in France. Electromagnetic tool in 1978 and most of Imaging logs were developed in 1980’s .

France Surface Recording Instrument The “First” Log recorded in 1927 .Well in Pechelbronn .

Purpose of Well Logging • Are there any hydrocarbons? Oil? Gas? • Where are the hydrocarbons? • How much of the hydrocarbons is contained in the formation? • How producible are the hydrocarbons? .

oil or water – Estimation of total reserves – Estimation of productive zones • Zone correlation • Isopach mapping • Defining physical rock properties: – – – – Lithology Porosity Pore geometry Permeability • Determination of depth and thickness of zones .Uses of Well Logging • Detect presence of hydrocarbons .Gas.

Uses of Well Logging • Correlation with seismic data • Structural and sedimentological studies • Formation boundaries and stratigraphic correlation • Quantitative fluid saturation • Reservoir modelling • Reservoir monitoring .

It could be either.1. • Sandstone • Limestone • Shale (unconventional) . Rock type • The basic concentration during the interpretation of well logs is the rock type or Lithology.

Fluids a. Pressure – Fluid pressure . gas saturated c. oil saturated.2. Saturation – Water saturated. What are the fluid type – Water – Oil – Gas b.

Gas.ROCK PROPERTIES – Porosity – Permeability – Lithology / Mineralogy – Density – Velocity – Pore Fluids (Water. Oil) / Pore Fluid Ratio – Thickness and Depth of the Formation – Fracture – Temperature .

such as: – Resistivity – Bulk density – Interval transit time – Spontaneous potential – Natural radioactivity .How to measure these properties? • Few of these parameters can be directly measured! • Derived or inferred from measurements of other physical parameters.

Types of Logs Lithological logs Gamma ray SP Litho-density Neutron-density Porosity logs Sonic Neutron Density Fluid indicator logs Resistivity Induction • Calliper logs for bore-hole properties .

Wireline Logging Logging while Drilling .