ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF THERMAL

SYSTEMS: An overview
BY
Prof. S.C.Kaushik*

* Centre for Energy Studies ,IIT Delhi

Energy can be transformed from one form to another
and never destroyed

But it does not distinguish between different forms of
energy on the basis of quality

It can not differentiate between the loss during a
process and irreversibility losses

Not able to say what quality is required at which
temperature level

A high grade energy may be used for a low grade
application and leading to national loss of resources and
loss to environment
First law of thermodynamics

A higher grade energy can be converted into a lower
grade energy but the reverse is impossible without
spending additional energy.

It can analyze the system so that irreversibility losses
(controllable and non controllable) are identified.

A comparison of actual performance can easily detect
the controllable losses of the system and extends the
scope of improvement.

Matching the grade/quality of input energy required.
Second law of thermodynamics
A process is thermodynamically ideal
If
The available energy,
i.e. exergy remains constant.,
And it fails short of the thermodynamic ideal to
the extent the exergy is consumed.
The following are three distinguished ways of exergy
transfer :

Exergy transfer with work (Work exergy) :
( )
max
1
Q
a
W Ex Q T T · ·
Ex W ·

Exergy transfer with heat interaction, (Thermal
exergy) :

Exergy associated with mass transfer or flow. (flow
exergy) :
o
þ þ
o
h T s þ ·

The first law of thermodynamics or equation of energy
balance for steady flow process of an open system is
given :
1
n
in i out
i
E Q E W
·
+ · +
¿ ¿ ¿
OR
Q
in out W
Q
in out W
Ex Ex Ex Ex I
I Ex Ex Ex Ex
+ · + +
·
¿ ¿ ¿
¿ ¿ ¿

The second law of thermodynamics or equation of
exergy balance for steady flow process of an open
system is given by :
Destruction of availability = irreversibility
Net rate of exergy supplied to a process =
Net rate of exergy output from the process +
Net rate of exergy loss in effluents +
Net rate of exergy consumption by the process
Exergy in Exergy out
Exergy
product
Exergy Loss
Waste
Exergy and Anergy

All type of energy (work, heat,..) are always composed
of Exergy (sometimes known as availability) and Anergy
Energy = Exergy + Anergy

exergy is that part of the energy that can be converted
without restrictions to all other types of high grade
energy or work

During energy conversion processes exergy may be
converted to anergy but anergy can never be converted
to exergy
Exergy –optimization: Real economic representation

thermodynamic optimization implies, exergy
optimization and not energy conservation, which
according to first law is never consumed or
destroyed

the exergy analysis is an useful step on the
way to achieve economically optimum solution
which must always correspond to an
economically reasonable irreversibility
Second Law Efficiency





supplied

( )
II
II
II
II
Actual output
Maximum desirable output
Exergy output
Exergy input
Availability of desired output
availability
First law efficiency
Ideal efficiency Carnot efficiency
n
n
n
n
·
·
·
·
Transformation
process
Material inputs
Energy inputs
Wastes & emissions
Useful outputs
Thermodynamics Thermodynamics and Material Flows in the Economy and Material Flows in the Economy
1. Law of Thermodynamics: 1. Law of Thermodynamics:
Conservation of energy
In non-nuclear processes energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Energy can only
be transformed from one form into another. The total amount of energy input to a non-
nuclear transformation process is thus equal to the total amount of energy output.
Conservation of mass
The total mass of material inputs into a (non-nuclear) material transformation process is
equal to the total mass of material outputs.
Conservation of mass per chemical element
The total mass of each chemical element is conserved during every (non-nuclear)
material transformation process.
1. Law of Thermodynamics: Quantity of energy during transformations stays the same.
3. Law of Thermodynamics: Quality of energy decreases during transformations
(what matters is exergy not energy).
2. Law of Thermodynamics 2. Law of Thermodynamics
Short form:
In a closed system, entropy (disorder) will increase with time until it reaches
its highest possible value.
What does this mean for material transformation processes (which are open systems):
• Every order-increasing material transformation processes requires low-entropy
energy inputs.
• Order-increasing material transformation processes turn low-entropy energy inputs
into high-entropy energy outputs.
• Every production process creates waste and/or emissions.
• Without low-entropy energy inputs materials tend to dissipate during use and
disposal.
Thermodynamics Thermodynamics and Material Flows in the Economy and Material Flows in the Economy

The first law efficiency is based on law of conservation of energy,
which is valid whether a process is physically possible or not.

The second law efficiency is based on law of degradation of
available energy i.e. quality of energy.Which is more realistic, rational
& true measure of the deviation of actual system from ideal system.

The first law efficiency can be even more than 100% ,while second
law efficiency is always lower than 100% .

Energy management on the whole, a first law practice which is a
necessary but insufficient. As per first law energy conservation
programs are unnecessary.

Energy conservation should be done by using the concept of exergy.
Where exergy is maximum work, which can be obtained from that form
of energy .

This presentation establishes a thermodynamics for energy efficiency
of various thermal systems and numerical appreciation is also given.

Energy = Exergy + Anergy
It is a measure of quantity and
quality due to entropy.
It is a measure of quantity
only.
It is always conserved in a
reversible process, but is
always consumed in an
irreversible process
It is always conserved in a
process, so can neither be
destroyed nor produced .
It is not limited for reversible
processes due to the SLT.
It is limited by the SLT for all
processes (incl. reversible
ones).
It is governed by the FLT for
reversible processes only (in
irreversible rocesses it is
destroyed partly or
completely).
It is governed by the FLT for all
the processes.
It is dependent both on the
parameters of matter or
energy flow and on the
environment parameters.
It is dependent on the
parameters of matter or
energy flow only, and
independent of the
environment parameters.
Exergy Energy
Pattern of Demand for conventional energy in percent[1]
Year 1979-80 1984-85 1989-90 2000 A.D.
(Conventional
energy only)
2000 A.D.
(including
Non-
conventional
energy)
Household 15.70 18.20 14.24 22.00
36.50
Agriculture 9.40 9.80 10.36 5.60
4.25
Industry 38.20 36.40 55.00 39.00
32.10
Transport 32.80 31.40 16.80 25.60
20.40
Others 3.90 4.20 3.60 7.80
6.25
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
100.00
3 Washing and others
5 Grinding
5 Entertainment (T.V. etc)
7 Cooking
10 Lighting
15 Water Heating
25 Refrigeration
30 Space conditioning
Percent Energy Use Type of Application
Percentage energy use in various applications [1]
Desired output energy
Input energy supplied
I
n ·
Desired output energy
Maximum possible output energy
II
n ·
( )
max
1
Q
o
W E Q T T · ·
Q
in out W
E E E E I + · + +
¿ ¿ ¿
min II
A A η =
Exergy of steady stream of matter is sum of kinetic, potential and physical exergy.
The physical exergy is given by ,where
0
β β −
o
h T s β = −
o gen
I T S =

And















T
o
, Q
o
Surrounding
E
in
Exergy in
E
W
Q
i
,T
i
Reservoirs
E
out
Exergy out
Irreversibility, I
















First and Second law efficiencies for energy conversion systems

heat
input
from
reservoir
at
By input
Shaft work
i

Produce work
o
W
i
W
i
A W =
min o
A W =
I o i
W W η =
I II
η η =

Electric motor

o
W
Motor
i
W
f
Q
f
T
( ) 1
f o f
A Q T T = −
min o
A W =
I o f
W Q η =
( ) 1
II I o f
T T η η = −
(Heat engine cycle)
o
T
o
Q
E
o
W
f
T
f
Q
heat
input from
reservoir at
By input
Shaft work
Add
heat
to a
Reservoir
at
u
Q
u
T
i
W
f
Q
f
T
i
A W =
( )
min
1
u o u
A Q T T = −

I a i
Q W η =

( ) 1
II I o u
T T η η = −

Carnot heat pump

( )
1
f o f
A Q T T = −
( )
min
1
u o u
A Q T T = −
I u f
Q Q η =
( ) ( ) { }
1 1
II I o u o f
T T T T η η = − −
Water heater


o
T
o
Q
P
i
W
u
T
u
Q
u
T
at Space
f
T
o
T
heat
input
from
reservoir
at
By input
Shaft work
Extract
heat
from a
cold
reservoir
At
c
Q
c
T
i
W
f
T
f
Q
i
A W =
( )
min
1
c o c
A Q T T = −

I c i
Q W η =
( ) 1
II I o c
T T η η = −

Carnot refrigerator

( )
1
f o f
A Q T T = −
( )
min
1
c o c
A Q T T = −
I c f
Q Q η =
( ) ( ) { }
1 1
II I o c o f
T T T T η η = − −
Vapour absorption system


c
T
c
Q
R
o
T
o
Q
i
W
,
o
Q
c
Q
' '
o
Q
E P
W
f
T
Generator
f
Q
o
T
Absorber
o
T
Condensor
e
T
Evaporator

It is apparent that demand of energy is growing steadily which
is being fulfilled by conventional sources.Among all
sectors,major consumption is in domestic& industrial. [1].

In these sectors, maximum consumption is in space
conditioning, refrigeration,water heating and process heating.

Energy conservation and replacement of existing energy
sources with renewable energy should be the present need.

As the Extraction cost of fossil fuels is sky rocketing so
switching over to solar energy is need of today.

It is shown by Petla that sun’s radiation is exergy rich but for
higher collection temperature it will not be economical.
In this paper, a comparison of solar energy and fossil fuel resources is
also made from the point of view of second law efficiency
( )
4
1 4 4 1
* 1 1 cos
3 3
o o
x
s s
T T
e q
T T
ô
]
| `
] · +
÷
]
. ,
]
,
2
For
rad
r
ô e
0.931 *
x
e q ·
*
*
1
o
x
T
e q
T
]
·
]
]
* *
*
300
0.931 1 q q
T
]
·
]
]
*
4350
o
T K ·
Exergy of Sun’s radiation[5-6]
( ) ( )
283 283
.6 1 1 0.0323
298 4350
II
n · ·
( ) ( )
.9 1 283 298 1 283 2300 .0515
II
n · ·
( ) ( )
.6 1 283 298 1 283 318 .274
II
n · ·
1 1
o o
II I
u f
T T
T T
n n
| `
| `
·
÷
÷
. ,
. ,
An illustration:-For the building space heating
For solar collector heating source at
45
o
C
For gas space heating system
For sun’s fuel source temperature
Second law efficiency for industrial processes requiring heat below using fossil
fuel source and solar heat sources assuming
280
o
C
0
300
o
T K ·
Temperature in
o
C
u
T
II
η % Solar radiation
Source
0
4350
f
T K =

II
η % Using fossil fuel
0
2300
f
T K =
II
η % Solar collector
Source
20
f u
T T = +
35 1.67 2.68 18.25
50 4.58 7.37 34.08
70 8.07 12.97 43.34
85 10.44 16.76 47.10
100 12.61 20.25 49.62
125 15.86 25.48 52.33
150 18.74 30.09 54.04
190 22.68 36.43 55.74
230 26.00 41.77 56.78
250 27.47 44.13 57.16
270 28.84 46.31 57.47

Solar heat is unique in that its temperature can be obtained by
choosing suitable collector to provide an excellent second law
match between the resource collection and end-use temperatures.
From an end use point of view, solar thermal energy finds its
application as given below.
2. Water heating:-Use of 1000 water heater can save 1 MW power.
3. Cooking :- Saving of fire wood and LPG, saving to consumer
and nation.
4. Industrial applications :--In Food, Textile, Pulp and
Paper,Rubber, Glass and Chemical industries for process heat
application at various temperatures.
5. Power generation [7]:-- Solar farm systems and feed water
heating in place of bleed steam ( Jodhpur )
The use of solar heat can conserve the high quality fossil fuel and
increases the efficiency of energy use.
Second law efficiency of various applications using other sources and solar thermal sources
Application Temperatures Other source

II
η
( %)
Solar collection case

II
η
( %)
Space heating
By fossil fuels
( ) .7
I
η =
By electricity
( ) .9
I
η =

( )
0
283 10
o o
T K C =
( )
298 25
o o
u
T K C =


4.0

1.5

24.4
[ 50 ]
.6
o
f
I
T C
η
=
=

Space cooling
By electricity
(Vapour compression system)
( ) 2
I
η =
By fossil fuels
(Vapour absorption system)
( ) .8
I
η =

( )
0
318 45
o o
T K C =

( )
295 22
o o
u
T K C =


5.2


7.23


27.33
[ 110 ]
.6
o
f
I
T C
η
=
=

Water heating
By fossil fuels
( ) .7
I
η =
By electricity
( ) .9
I
η =

( )
0
283 10
o o
T K C =

( )
335 62
o o
u
T K C =

12.39

4.66

55.55

[ 67 ]
.6
o
f
I
T C
η
=
=

Cooking
By fuels
( ) .6
I
η =

( )
298 25
o o
o
T K C =

( )
393 120
o o
u
T K C =


16.67
55.66
[ 130 ]
.6
o
f
I
T C
η
=
=


Refrigeration
By electricity
(Vapour compression system)
( ) 1.8
I
η =
( )
298 25
o o
o
T K C =

( )
270 3
o o
u
T K C = −

6.22

19.93
[ 160 ]
.6
o
f
I
T C
η
=
=

Dehumidification
of air in hot and
humid climate
(electricity)
( )
313 40
o o
o
T K C =
( )
283 10
o o
u
T K C =

5
25.67
[ 90 ]
o
f
T C =
(Using Desiccant)


Conclusion

The second law efficiency has been shown to be a very useful
source index, which is a measure of the exergy of fuel. The exergy
of a given fuel is utilized to its fullest when the entropy generated in
the fuel-user temperature gaps is minimized.

For proper utilization of exergy there must be proper match between
source and use temperature or higher temperature source should first
be used for higher temperature applications and heat rejected from
these applications should be cascaded to applications at lower
temperatures.

In future if costs permit then the solar radiation collection and
utilization should be done at higher temperature.

The use of solar thermal heat not only saves the precious exergy
rich fuel but also improves the economy, as investment in the fuel
saving technology may cost less than efforts to increase fuel
supplies in the future.
References
1. S.C.Tripathy, “Electric Energy Utilization and Conservation”,
TataMcGrawHill Pub.,1991
2. A.Bejan, “Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics,” Wiley
Interscience Pub. 1988
3. Van Wylen et al, “Fundamentals Of Classical Thermodynamics”,
John Wiley & Sons, Fourth edition, 1994
4. Jan. F. Kreider, “ Second law analysis of solar thermal processes”
Energy Research,vol.3, 325-331,1979
5. J.E. Parrot, “ Theoretical upper limit to the conversion efficiency of
solar energy, Solar Energy, 21, 227, 1978
7. Petela R.,Exergy of heat radiation , J. Heat Transfer, vol. 86, 187-192,
1964,.
8. S.C.Kaushik et al “Second law analysis of a thermal power
system”,Int. J. of Solar Energy,Vol. 20, 239- 253, 2000
Second law efficiency of various applications using other sources and
solar thermal sources
Application Temperatures Other source

II
η
( %)
Solar collection case

II
η
( %)
Space heating
By fossil fuels
( )
.7
I
η =
By electricity
( )
.9
I
η =

( )
0
283 10
o o
T K C =
( )
298 25
o o
u
T K C =


4.0

1.5


24.4
[ 50 ]
.6
o
f
I
T C
η
=
=

Space cooling
By electricity
(Vapour compression system)
( )
2
I
η =
By fossil fuels
(Vapour absorption system)
( )
.8
I
η =

( )
0
318 45
o o
T K C =

( )
295 22
o o
u
T K C =


5.2


7.23


27.33
[ 110 ]
.6
o
f
I
T C
η
=
=


Application Temperatures Other source

II
η
( %)
Solar collection case

II
η
( %)
Water heating
By fossil fuels
( )
.7
I
η =
By electricity
( )
.9
I
η =

( )
0
283 10
o o
T K C =

( )
335 62
o o
u
T K C =

12.39

4.66

55.55

[ 67 ]
.6
o
f
I
T C
η
=
=

Cooking
By fuels
( )
.6
I
η =

( )
298 25
o o
o
T K C =

( )
393 120
o o
u
T K C =


16.67
55.66
[ 130 ]
.6
o
f
I
T C
η
=
=


Refrigeration
By electricity
(Vapour compression system)
( )
1.8
I
η =
( )
298 25
o o
o
T K C =

( )
270 3
o o
u
T K C = −

6.22

19.93
[ 160 ]
.6
o
f
I
T C
η
=
=

Dehumidification
of air in hot and
humid climate
(electricity)
( )
313 40
o o
o
T K C =
( )
283 10
o o
u
T K C =

5
25.67
[ 90 ]
o
f
T C =
(Using Desiccant)

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