Presentation On

Presented To: Ms. Sadaf Zahra
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PRESENTED BY:

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Memory Hierarchy
MEMORY STORAGE RAM ROM OPTICAL DISK SECONDARY STORAGE MEMORY HIGH SPEED MEMORIES

DRAM

PROM

CD-ROM

DVD-ROM

REGISTERS

CACHE

SRAM

EPROM

MRAM

EEPROM

MROM

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Comparison between Memory:

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REGISTER

A special, high-speed storage area within the CPU. All data must be represented in a register before it can be processed.

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PERFORMANCE OF REGISTER

The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each (number of bits) help determine the power and speed of a CPU. For example; a 32-bit CPU is one in which each register is 32 bits wide. Therefore, each CPU instruction can manipulate 32 bits of data
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The Fetch and Execute Cycle: Machine ...

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TYPES OF REGISTER

ACCUMULATOR REGISTER ADDRESS OR SEGMENT REGISTER INSTRUCTION REGISTER

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ACCUMULATOR REGISTER
The accumulator register use in during Logical and arithmetic operations of the CPU. It is the part of ALU.

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MEMORY ADDRES REGISTER

A high-speed circuit that holds the addresses of data to be processed or of the next instruction to be executed.

What is it Purpose ?

While the first instruction is being executed, the address of the next memory location is held by it It is loaded from program control register when the instuction is read from memory
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INSTRUCTION REGISTER
 

It holds current instructions being executed The instruction is stored in this register the operation part and address part of instruction are separated Address part is sent to MAR and operation part is sent to CONTROL UNIT where it is decoded and sent to concerning device (monitor or hard disk)
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RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
RAM: “Ram is used to Store data and program instructions that is being executed by the computer”.

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Functions of RAM

   

Randomly select and use any location of the memory to directly store and retreive the data Read write and delete information from RAM Volatile Fast speed Technology used is CMOS(complimentary metal oxide semiconductor) Memory consists of blank chips fixed on a single inline memory modules SIMMS) which hold a group of memory chips
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Types of RAM
There is three basic types of RAM
  

DYNAMIC RAM STATIC RAM MRAM

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DYNAMIC RAM

Merits  Cheaper  Transistor  Refresh periodically (in 2ms)  access time (150ns…..200ns

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Types of DRAM

SDRAM DDR-SDRAM (Double Data RateSynchronous Dynamic RAM)

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SDRAM

SDRAM is a variant of DRAM in which the memory speed is synchronized with the clock pulse from the CPU.

Purpose of SDRAM

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DDR SDRAM
DDR SDRAM doubles the bandwidth of SDR DRAM by transferring data twice per cycle on both edges of the clock signal, implementing burst mode data transfer.

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MRAM (Magnetic RAM)
M-Ram stores data using magnetic charges instead of Electrical Charges.It is a newer type of RAM. Merits  Greater storage capacity  Consumes less Power  Faster Access times  Retained contents even when PC switched Off.
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READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM)
ROM is a type of memory that normally can only be read, as opposed to RAM which can be both read and written.

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History of ROM

PROM, invented in 1956, allowed users to program its contents exactly once by physically altering its structure with the application of high-voltage pulses. EPROM The 1971 invention of essentially solved problem 3, since EPROM (unlike PROM) can be repeatedly reset to its unprogrammed state by exposure to strong ultraviolet light EEPROM, invented in 1983, went a long way to solving problem 4, since an EEPROM can be programmed in-place if the containing device provides a means to receive the program contents from an external source (e.g. a personal computer via a serial cable).
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History Of ROM

Flash memory, invented at Toshiba in the mid-1980s, and

commercialized in the early 1990s, is a form of EEPROM that makes very efficient use of chip area and can be erased and reprogrammed thousands of times without damage. Mask ROM invented by the year 2000 so that in large quantities mask ROM would remain an economical choice for many years. Nand Flash The most recent development is NAND flash, also invented by Toshiba. Its designers explicitly broke from past practice, stating plainly that "the aim of NAND Flash is to replace hard disks”. NAND has partially achieved this goal by offering throughput comparable to hard disks, higher tolerance of physical shock, extreme miniaturization (in the form of USB flash drives and tiny microSD memory cards.
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Functions of ROM

Non-Volatile Memory:
The one thing all forms of ROM have in common is that they are all non-volatile.

Permanence
The values stored in ROM are always there, whether the power is on or not. A ROM can be removed from the PC, stored for an indefinite period of time, and then replaced, and the data it contains will still be there. For this reason, it is called nonvolatile storage..

Security:
The fact that ROM cannot easily be modified provides a measure of security against accidental (or malicious) changes to its contents. You are not going to find viruses infecting true ROMs,
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Types of ROM
  

Mask-Programmed ROM (MROM) Programmable ROM (PROM) Erasable-Programmable ROM (EPROM) Electrically Erasable PROM (EEPROM)

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Types of ROM
Erasable-Programmable ROM (EPROM)
EPROM can also be programmed and erased by the user using ultraviolet light and special circuitry external to the computer.

Electrically Erasable PROM (EEPROM)
EEPROM can be erased and reprogrammed by special circuitry within the computer. (EEPROM) is based on a similar semiconductor structure to EPROM,
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Types of ROM
Mask-Programmed ROM (MROM)

Classic mask-programmed ROM chips are integrated circuits that physically encode the data to be stored, and thus it is impossible to change their contents after writing. can be custom-programmed by the user (once) using special circuitry. This device uses high voltages to permanently destroy or create internal links (fuses or antifuses) within the chip. Consequently, a PROM can only be programmed once.
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Programmable ROM (PROM): —

Types of EEPROM
Flash memory Flash memory (or simply flash) is a modern type of EEPROM invented in 1984. Flash memory can be erased and rewritten faster than ordinary EEPROM, and newer designs feature very high endurance (exceeding
1,000,000 cycles).

NAND flash Flash memory is sometimes called flash ROM or flash EEPROM when used as a replacement for older ROM types, but not in applications that take advantage of its ability to be modified quickly and frequently makes efficient use of silicon chip area, resulting has allowed NAND flash to replace magnetic in some applications (such as USB flash drives

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Speed of ROM
Reading speed: Although the relative speed of RAM vs. ROM has varied over time As of 2007, large RAM chips can be read faster than most ROMs ROM content is sometimes copied to RAM to its first use, and subsequently read from RAM. Writing speed: For those types of ROM that can be electrically modified, writing speed is always much slower than reading speed, Modern NAND Flash achieves the highest write speeds of any rewritable ROM technology, with speeds as high as 15 MiB/s (or 70 ns/bit),
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The Advantages of ROM
     

They are non-volatile They are cheaper than RAM They are static and do not refreshing They are more reliable than RAM as their circuit is simple. They are available in longer sizes than RAM. They are easier to interface than RAM.
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Disadvantages Of ROM
  

They are maintenance in cost. Slow up grade. Limited Access.

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What is Optical Disk ?
A Compact Disc (also known as a CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio.

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What is Compact Disk ?

Compact Disc Read Only Memory. A compact disc format that is used to hold text, graphics, and hi-fi stereo sound. The disc is almost the same as the music CD, but uses different tracks for data.
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History Of Compact Disk

Sony of Japan and Philips of the Netherlands developed the compact disc (CD), a small hard plastic disc that could be economically produced in large quantities. CD-Audio was the first application for this new technology. CD-Audio was very successful, due in large part to the producers adherence to a set of specifications that later became standards. When CD-ROM was designed, the industry recognized the need for standards and developed ISO 9660 as the base standard for all CD-ROMs
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History Of Compact Disk

the story is slightly more involved. In 1979, Philips owned Polygram, one of the world’s largest distributors of music. The first commercially available CD was pressed in Hanover, Germany, by PDO-the Polydor Pressing Operations plant, in 1980.
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Physical Attributes

Physically, the standard compact disc is a disc made of clear polycarbonate plastic, coated with a reflective metal, and a protective coat of clear lacquer. Data is placed on the CD-ROM in the form of small pits recorded in a spiral track starting at the center of the CDROM and working to the outer edge.
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Structure And Capacity

The standard CD-ROM can hold up to 74 minutes (about 680 Megabytes) of data, uncompressed. Along with the data, error detection and correction codes are also recorded on the disc This accounts for the incredibility low error rate when reading CD-ROMs.
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Reading Data from a CD-ROM

 

When reading a CD-ROM, a low power laser beam is focused on the rotating CDROM and its reflection is viewed by the read head. When the beam reflects back from the CDROM, it's intensity changes as it moves from "land" to "pits". These variations in the laser beam are decoded as data by the CD-ROM drive. It should be noted, CD-ROMs rotate at a constant linear velocity (CLV)
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Optical storage devices read data by shining laser beam on the disc.
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Types of Compact Disks:
   

Read only: CD-ROM Write once: CD-R Rewriteable: CD-RW Picture CDs and Photo CDs

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CD-R

A CD-R (Compact Disc-Recordable) is a variation of the Compact Disc invented by Philips and Sony. CD-R is a Write Once Read Many (WORM) optical medium, though the whole disk does not have to be entirely written in the same session.
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CD-RW

Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW) is a rewritable optical disc format. Known as CDErasable (CD-E) during its development, CD-RW was introduced in 1997, and was preceded by the never officially released in 1988. They can be extended, but not selectively overwritten, and writing sessions must be closed before they can be read in CD-ROM drives or players.
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Photo CD

Photo CD is a system designed by Kodak for digitizing and storing photos in a CD. Launched in 1992, the discs were designed to hold nearly 100 high quality images, scanned prints and slides using special proprietary encoding.
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Advantages Of CD ROM
     

Advantages of CD-ROM Access Cheaper Faster Access Customization Contents More Control
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Disadvantages Of CD ROM

Maintenance Cost
  

Hardware Software Expertise

 

Slow Upgrade Limited Access

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DVD Disc

DVD stands for digital versatile disk or digital video disk. It is similar to CD(compact disk) but its store data then the CD Data storage capacity of DVD disk increased if the hole size is small its can store data 4.7 GB to 17.00 GB

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History

In 1995 Sony corporation and Toshiba introduced DVD first time in the market In 1997 Americans introduced storage DVD in the market movie

But now a days its most commonly used in different ways and development made day by day.
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Recordable Optical Technology

The record able optical technologies of DVD Disk consist of two things DVD-R and DVDRW. DVD-R its stands for digital versatile disk recordable. Its is similar to CD-R disk user can write data only one time but read many time. DVD-RW its stand for digital versatile disk rewriteable user can write data on this many times.

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Capacity of DVD Disk
Capacity Slides & layers
4.7GB 8.54GB 17.08GB Single sided single layer Single sided double layer Double sided double layer
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Data Read & Write

Write data both sides in DVD-RW and single slide in DVD-R by using special datacompression technologies and disk divided into small tracks for storing data Read data the surface of a DVD contains micro Scopic Pits, which represent the 0s and 1s of digital code that can be read by a laser.
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 

Usage of DVD Disk
• • • •

Data storage Video storage Audio storage Games storage

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Advantages of DVD Disk
   

 

High storage capacity Rewriteable Store audio,video,and games Write data on both sides of disk Easily available and handle Source of record

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Disadvantages Of DVD Disk
     

Expensive Sensitive Data lost due to scratch Only run in DVD Rom No protection cover Lack of durability
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High Definition

To better understand the need for media formats with greater storage lets briefly describe what High Definition is. Your regular TV signal has about 480 pixel lines, but HD has about 1280 pixel lines that go across your TV

Because of this difference the bandwidth of HD is about 5 times greater than standard video. Currently a standard movie takes up almost an entire DVD so we need something that’s almost 5 times that.

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Blu-ray Technology

Name derived from the blue-violet laser used to read and write data. Developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association with more than 180 members.
  

Dell Sony LG
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Blu-ray Technology
 

Data Capacity Because of the greatly compact data Blu-ray can hold almost 5 times more data than a single layer DVD. Close to 25 GB!

Just like a DVD Blu-ray can also be recorded in Dual-Layer format. This allows the disk to hold up to 50 GB!! Because the polycarbonate layer of the Blu-ray disc is so much larger than a DVD because the recording layer is so much smaller it can have even more than two layers.
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Blu-ray Technology

Writing Data

Blu-ray uses a combination of two lenses to greatly shrink the laser to read the data. This also allows for higher data rate transfer close to 36 mbps.

It could record 25 GB of data in an hour an a half.
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Blu-ray Technology

Formats

  

BD-ROM (read-only) - for pre-recorded content BD-R (recordable) - for PC data storage BD-RW (rewritable) - for PC data storage BD-RE (rewritable) - for HDTV recording
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Blu-ray Integration

Blu-ray discs are able to record HD without any signal loss.

Single layer up to 2 hours of HD video Dual layer up to 4.5 hours of HD video

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Blu-ray Integration

Security

Blu-ray discs are better armed than current DVDs. They come equipped with a secure encryption system -- a unique ID that protects against video piracy and copyright infringement.
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HD DVD Technology

Name

Obviously comes from the term High Definition Developed by Toshiba and NEC Discontinued in 1998

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HD DVD Technology

Data Capacity

HD DVD uses close to the same blue laser that the Blu-ray disc does. It is also 405 nanometers wide. Thus allows for data to be greatly compressed.

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HD DVD Technology

Data Capacity Cont.

Single Layer Disc

15 GB 30 GB

Dual Layer Disc

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HD DVD Technology Cont.

Formats

HD DVD (read-only) - for pre-recorded content HD DVD-R (recordable) - for PC data storage HD DVD-RAM (rewritable) - for HDTV recording
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HD DVD Integration

Compatibility

Because a lot of home-users don’t yet have a high definition Television the makers of the HD DVD disc made it backwards compatible by using the twin format scheme.

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HD DVD Integration

Compatibility Cont.

But what about dual layer?? In order to accommodate for the needs of the storage capacity of the dual layer format the makers designed the combination format.
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HD DVD Integration

Security

Uses the same security feature as Blu-ray. Both Blu-ray and HD DVD makers said would be extremely hard to pirate with this security feature. Eight days after HD DVD discs hit the market a hacker called muslix64 reportedly cracked the security feature.

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HD DVD vs Blu-ray
  

Both formats use blue lasers rather than red. Both have the same options for video and audio compression. Blu-ray offers significantly more storage space -- 50 GB on a dual-layer disc versus HD-DVD's 30 GB. The DVD Forum, which creates DVD standards, has approved HD-DVD and has not approved Blu-ray. HD-DVD is less expensive than Blu-ray. HD-DVDs can be produced on existing equipment, and Bluray discs can't.
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 

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REFERENCES
  

 

CD ROM ^ EP patent 689208 "Method for block oriented addressing" - for block layouts see columns 1 and 2 ^ Data Interchange on Read-only 120 mm Optical Data Disks (CD-ROM) . ECMA. June 1996. http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-130.htm . Retrieved on 2009-04-26. ^ Note that the CIRC error correction system used in the CD audio format has two interleaved layers. ^ "Optical Media FAQs" (PDF). http://www.memorex.com/downloads/whitepapers/WhitePaper_Reference_G . Retrieved on 2007-01-06. ^ Schoen, Seth. "Harry Potter and the Digital Fingerprints", Electronic Frontier Foundation, July 20, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007

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REFERENCES
 

Blu Ray and HD DVD ^ Evan Ramstad (1998-04-08). "In HDTV Age, Successor to VCR Still Seems to Be a Long Way Off". online.wsj.com. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB891992681208651500.html?mod=googlewsj. Retrieved on 2007-10-18. ^ Martyn Williams (2002-08-12). "Opening the Door for New Storage Options". pcworld.com. http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,103862-page,1/article.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-18. ^ S.B. Luitjens (2001-06-15). "Blue laser bolsters DTV storage, features". planetanalog.com. http://www.planetanalog.com/features/OEG20010615S0046. Retrieved on 2007-10-19. ^ "Sony Shows 'DVR-Blue' Prototype". cdrinfo.com. 2000-10-11. http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,105534-page,1/article.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-17. ^ a b Blu-ray Disc Founders (2004-08). "White paper, Blu-ray Disc Format,

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REFERENCES
     

DVD ROM and its types ^ "Build Your Skills: A comparison between DVD and CD-ROM". http://articles.techrepublic.com.com/5100-6349-1047035.html. ^ DVD-Workshop: University of Utah and elsewhere, e.g. as the SD export preset for standard definition DVDs in Final Cut Pro. ^ [1]. ^ "E-commerce and Video Distribution: DVD and Blu-ray". http://ecommerceandvideodistributiondvd.blogspot.com/. ^ a b c The New York Times (September 7, 1997). For the DVD, Disney Magic May Be the Key. Press release. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9407EEDC1730F934A3575A . Retrieved on 2009-01-18. ^ "A Battle for Influence Over Insatiable Disks". New York Times. 1995-01-11. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990CEEDA143CF932A2575 . Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
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REFERENCES
 

Rom and its explanation ^ See page 6 of Toshiba's 1993 NAND Flash Applications Design Guide . ^ See chapters on "Combinatorial Digital Circuits" and "Sequential Digital Circuits" in Millman & Grable, Microelectronics, 2nd ed.
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REFERENCES
 

Ram and its types ^ Strictly speaking, modern types of DRAM are therefore not truly (or technically) random access, as data are read in burst, although the name DRAM / RAM has stuck. However, many types of SRAM, ROM, OTP, and NOR flash are still random access even in a strict sense. ^ "Shadow Ram" (HTML). http://hardwarehell.com/articles/shadowram.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-24. ^ The term was coined in Hitting the Memory Wall: Implications of the Obvious (PD
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THANKX TO ALL OF U
You can mail me at waseem00300@yahoo.com waseem00300@gmail.com waseem00300@hotmail.com

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