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Cosmetics

Dr. Harminder Singh
harminder.singh@lpu.co.in

Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Includes:
• • • • • • • • skin-care creams, lipsticks, powders, perfumes, deodorants nail polish, eye and facial makeup, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, baby products, bath oils,
Prepared By: Dr. Harminder Singh

Cosmetics are available in several forms for various uses. Most common are : Emulsions, suspensions and sticks. Ingredients used are : surfactants, water, emulsifier, active ingredients, thickener, color, fragrance and preservatives.

The basics of most cosmetics are emulsions.

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which are not soluble in each other. The emulsions can be divided up into two groups: 1.What is a Emulsion? A emulsion is a meta stable disperse system of two liquids.Oil in water (O/W) emulsions and 2. Water in Oil (W/O) emulsions. Harminder Singh . Prepared By: Dr.

Cosmetic removable by water oil drop water phase Prepared By: Dr. Water is the outer. dispersed phase.O/W emulsion By dispersion of oil into water the oil drops are the inner. continuous phase. Harminder Singh .

Cosmetic water resistant Oil Prepared By: Dr. Oil is the outer. dispersed phase. continuous phase.W/O Emulsion Water By dispersion of water into oil the water drops are the inner. Harminder Singh .

Also it has some effects in reducing the fine lines and wrinkles. .g.SKIN CARE These are used to solve the problems from dry skin to wrinkles to counteract the effects of ageing. Ceramide-3 – increases the content within the skin and make it look younger. Lactic acid – swells and soften the top layer of the skin. Oils – Clean and soften the skin. Natural wool wax and lanolin. E.

Harminder Singh .Creams a topical preparation usually for application to the skin Prepared By: Dr.

oleic acid. Vanishing creams – oil in water emulsions. . Uses – Keep the skin moist and soft. These are generally semisolid emulsions with water. sorbitol incorporated with water phase act to retard drying out of the creams. Propylene. Soluble in water and made from fatty acids e. glycerine. Penetrate the skin without leaving an oily surface film.Cold creams – Oil based cleaners. glycol.g stearic acid.

sodium perborate. Emollient creams – soften the skin. Bleaching creams – Active ingredients of ammoniated mercury.Foundation creams – These are oil soluble dyes to match the skin color. .

moisturizers ( sweet almond oil). .SKIN CARE FOR KIDS Skin care products for kids usually contain natural antioxidants . aloe and milk protein .

Deodrants and Antiperspirants Body odour is produced by the breakdown of the organic fractions of sweat by the natural skin bacteria. sticks and gels. Deodrants.They merely mask the odour of sweat rather than seeking to prevent its formaton. Available in the form of aerolsols. .

Deodrants work by killing the bacteria and masking the unpleasant odour with something more fragrant .

Antiperspirants serve to suppress sweating. They usually contain anti bacterial agents to hinder growth of odour producing microorganisms. aluminium chlorohydrate.g. The contain aluminium salts in combination with zirconium salts e. aluminium zirconium chlorohydrate etc .

an adhesive resin.Nail Cosmetics Nail polishes – These consists of cellulose nitrate. dye and a mixture of solvents. a plasticizer. Nail polish removers usually consists of acetone and ethyl acetate. .

Mouth Cosmetics .

Toothpaste is a dentifrice used in conjunction with a toothbrush to help maintain oral hygiene.Dentifrices are agents used along with a toothbrush to clean and polish natural teeth.Also called oral cosmetics. Dentrifices . gel or liquid form. powder. Promote a good standard of oral hygiene. Toothpaste . . They are supplied in paste. which is essential part of our civilization. Includes toothpastes and the substances like mouth washers and sprays that clean the teeth and gums. Most common of them is toothpaste.

Humectant – Glycerine and sorbitol. Flavour – spearmint. . peppermint.g. sodium lauryl sulphate. Foaming agent e. dicalcium phosphate dihydrate.Common ingredients – Polishing agents e.g.

UsesProtect against cavities Freshens the breath. . Control oral infections. Reduce tooth senstivity.

Sun Protection Problems faced: Sun burns Skin cancer Formation of Wrinkles Ageing. .

Organic sun absorbers – These includes benzophenones and octyl methoxycinnamate. . These days both are used in combination.Skin care actives fall in two categoriesInorganic sun blockers – These include zinc oxide or titanium dioxide.

soaps. Shampoos.Perfumes and Fragrances Perfumes and Fragrances are all parts of our daily lives. detergents and other products that we use have fragrances associated with them. .

Etheral Pungent. Putrid .Nose can detect seven primary odours : Camphorous Musky Floral Pepperminty.

. Parts of plants responsible are Flower Seeds (Cardamom) Roots (angelica) Bark ( Cinnamon) Peels (Orange).Most of the fragrances originate from plants.

These oils are dissolved in a solvent (ethyl alcohol). The percentage of essential oils are Perfume (20-30%) Cologne ( 8-15%) Aftershave (1-3%) .The fragrances are extracted from the flowers in the form of essential oils.

Hair Care Different products used are: Shampoos Conditioners Styling products Hair dyes .

Hair cleansing Shampoos are liquid detergents and are further modified by additives to give lustre and softness to hair. which generally equates to removing grease because the particulate dirt tends to adhere to the grease rather than the hair itself. These are designed to clean the hair. .

They are also responsible for the formation of foam. Then. .Major ingredients are : A mixture of Surfactants – ethoxylate and an amphoteric surfactant and usually an alkanoamide as well. Surfactants are responsible for removing the dirt by lowering the surface tension. Coconut fatty acid may be added which prevent the hair from becoming dry.g Sodium laryl sulphate. Some of the foaming agents may also be added e.

To make the hair soft and shiny and easier to comb.Hair conditioning The second stage in hair care is conditioning. Purpose of hair conditioner . . Pro-vitamin B5 is most common. Earlier it was cationic surfactants like such as stearalkonium chloride was used but these days it is silicones and proteins often in combination with cationic surfactants.

These solutions are mixed with Hydrogen peroxide before being applied to the hair. Hair darkners are combination of Pb. Ag and Cu salts with developing solutions. . After the color develops the hair are washed away. Hair dyes are alkaline solution paraphenylene diammine dyes.Hair color Hair color is modified either by Bleaching with Hydrogen peroxide Colored with hair dyes.

Hair color remover – Calcium thioglycolate. they develop insoluble oxides and sulphides which give color to the hair. .Under the influence of light and air. and and combination of the metal salts. Different shades could be developed by varying the conc.

Hair Waving It is the process of changing the shape of the hair. Two types: Heat waving. . of 90-104oC followed by rinsing with neutralizer which is a dil. ammonium carbonate. potassium carbonate. These solutions are applied at a temp. sodium borate and water. Acid. Cold waving – solution contain ammonium thioglycolate.Preparations contain sodium or potassium sulphite with monoethanolamine.

Hairspray It is a solution of a polymer in a very volatile solvent. vinyl acetate and maleic anhydride etc. . Spraying deposits a stiff layer of the polymer on the hair after the solvents evaporates. Polymers used are polyvinylpyrrolidine.

stearyl alcohol. palmitic acid . mineral oil.Shaving Creams Contain water. imidazolidinyl urea. propylparaben and fragrance. . methylparaben.

Lipsticks : It consists of a solid waxy material mixed with non volatile oil so that it can spread easily and also remain stiff in the tube. Soluble dyes are converted into insoluble particles by treatment with metal oxides. eye shadow or blusher.Color cosmetics Most color cosmetics are based on talc whether face powder. . Dyes used are insoluble in water so that the color last longer.

Oil soluble dyes when used without pigment give black lipsticks which gives a dark red color. stickness and suitable melting point. stress. Mood lipsticks – These changes color with diet.Eosin is commonly used red dye in lipsticks. Natural lipsticks – These contain stain dyes but no pigments and on application develops a pink color. Esters of fatty acids are added to ensure the lipstick has proper texture. physical activity as these factors affect the .

paste and powder form. Solid rouge may be of oil in water or water in oil type. Cream rouges may be emulsified cream with a texture such that an adequate amount can be picked by a finger and spread smoothly over the skin. . propylene glycol or sorbitol. Liquid rouge is formulated as dispersion or a fluid emulsion containing slow drying or non drying ingredients like glycerine .Rouge Available in liquid. cream.