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Organic Chemistry

The Chemistry of Carbon

Hybridization of Carbon
 Carbon, when single bonded, has sp3 hybrid orbitals. This results in a tetrahedral shaped molecule. Ex. CH4  Double bonded carbon is sp2 hybridized Ex. C2H4  Triple bonded carbon is sp hybridized Ex. C2H2  Allotropes of carbon (other carbon structures)  Diamond – carbon covalently bonded in a crystal  Graphite – covalently bonded in sheets  Fullerenes – carbon bonded in rings – look like soccer ball Ex. C60

Chemistry of Carbon Compounds
 Carbon can bond itself to form chains or rings (catenation)  Hydrocarbon – carbon & hydrogen bonded together  Isomers – compounds that have the same molecular formula, but different structures  Structural Isomers – atoms bonded together in different order  Stereoisomers – bonding in the same order but the arrangement of atoms is different  Enantiomers (non super imposable mirror images)  Geometric Isomers – (cis/trans isomers)

Hydrocarbons with only single bonds. The name is based on the # of carbons. All alkane names end in –ane and have general formula CxH2x+2.
# carbons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Alkane Name Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane Decane Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 Prefix MethEthPropButPentHexHeptOctNonDec-

IUPAC rules
1. Find the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms. This gives you the stem name for the compound. 2. Look for any groups or elements other than Hydrogen that may appear in the molecule. There will be a special prefix for each such group. If there is more than one group of any kind use the prefixes di (two), tri (three), tetra (four), and so on to tell how many of the groups there are. 3. Use a number to show where each of the substituted groups appears. If there are more than two groups of the same kind, each must have a number. 4. Always count from the end of the chain that will give you the lowest possible number or combination of numbers. 5. Use hyphens to separate numbers from names, and commas to separate numbers from each other.

Types of Carbon Chains
 Alkenes – hydrocarbons with one or more double bonds. Name ends in –ene and have form CxH2x. Ex. Propene  Alkynes - hydrocarbons with one or more triple bonds. Name ends in –yne and have form. Ex. Ethyne  Alcohols –An –O-H functional group. -O-H is located on a carbon atom. Alcohol names end in –ol. Ex. Methanol, Ethanol  Alkyl Halides – Halogen substituted hydrocarbons. Halogen names go in the prefix. Ex. 2-bromopentane  Ethers have an oxygen between two carbon chains. Named with the names of the 2 chains and the word “ether”. Diethyl ether, ethyl methyl ether

Types of Carbon Chains
 Aldehydes – hydrocarbons with a double bonded oxygen on an outer carbon. Name ends in –al. Ex. Hexanal  Ketones - hydrocarbons with a double bonded oxygen on an inner carbon. Name ends in –one. Ex. Propanone  Carboxylic Acids –An –O-H functional group and double bonded oxygen is located on the end of a carbon chain. Names end in –oic acid. Ex. Butanoic Acid  Esters – have an oxygen between two carbon chains and a double bonded oxygen. Name the group attached to the oxygen first. Name the carboxylic acid chain. Change the carboxylic acid name to end in –oate. Ex. Ethyl butanoate

Name These Babies!
         1-pentene 2,2-dichloropropane 3-heptanol 2-octanone Butyl ethyl ether 1-pentanal Methanoic Acid 5-nonyne Propyl propanoate

Trivia Time!

What country has more English speakers than any in the world? China