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Titration

• Indicators & pH Meters: The pH range over which an indicator changes color is its transition interval. pH meters measure the interval pH using electrodes. • Titration is the process of adding an acid to base until it is neutralized. (or vice versa) • Indicators are used to show when neutralization is reached.

More On Titrations
• Titrations are done to find the concentration of the unknown acid or base. • The correct indicator needs to be chosen so that it changes color right where acid = base or very close to this point. • The place where the indicator changes color is the end point. • The place where acid = base is the equivalence point.
– Titrations may be done on compounds that are not acids & bases if they react so that the two factors are in chemically equivalent amounts at the equivalence point & there is an indicator with an appropriate endpoint.

For a titration with a strong acid and a strong base the equivalence point occurs at approximately a pH of 7. 7

For a titration with a weak acid and a strong base the equivalence point occurs above a pH of 7. 7

Performing Titrations
• STEPS: • 1.) Use burets to accurately measure acid & base amounts. • 2.) Add one to the other until the indicator just barely changes color. color • If the acid & base involved are both monoprotic, M1V1=M2V2 ( or MHVH=MOHVOH ) can be used to find the unknown molarity. • If the acid & base involved have different amounts of H+ and OH-, then the balanced equation will have to be used along with dimensional analysis. (p502)

Sample Problem
• If 20.0 mL of 0.0100 M aqueous HCl is required to neutralize 30.0 mL of an aqueous solution of NaOH, determine the molarity of the NaOH solution. • MHVH=MOHVOH • (0.0100M) (20.0 mL) = (MOH)(30.0mL) • MOH = 6.67 x 10-3 M NaOH

Try it Out!
• In a titration, 27.4 mL of 0.154 M LiOH is added to a 25.0 mL HCl solution of unknown concentration. What is the molarity of the solution? • MHVH=MOHVOH • (MH)(25.0mL) = (27.4 mL)(0.154M) • MH= 0.169 M HCl

Your Turn!
• Suppose 20.0 mL of 0.100 M aqueous Ca(OH)2 is required to neutralize 12.0 mL of an aqueous solution of HCl. What is the molarity of the HCl solution. • Ca(OH)2 + 2HCl → 2H2O + CaCl2 • Moles H+ = Moles OH- at equiv point Calculate moles of OH- (Molarity x Volume) 0.100 mols/L x 0.020 L = 0.0020 moles Ca(OH) 2 0.00200 mol Ca(OH)2 x 2 mol HCl = 0.0040 mol HCl 1 mol Ca(OH)2 Molarity = 0.004 mols HCl = 0.33 M HCl

Another One!
• By titration, 17.6 mL of aqueous H2SO4 neutralized 27.4 mL of an aqueous solution of 0.0165 M KOH. What is the molarity of the acid solution? • H2SO4 + 2KOH→ 2H2O + K2SO4 Moles H+ = Moles OH- at equiv point Calculate moles of OH- (Molarity x Volume) 0.0165 moles/L x 0.0274 L = 0.000452 moles KOH
0.000452 moles KOH x 1 mol H2SO4 = 0.000226 mol H2SO4 2 mol KOH

M = 0.000226 mols H2SO4 = 0.0128 M H2SO4 0.0176 L

Last One!
• By titration, 33.3 mL of aqueous H3PO4 neutralized 55.5 mL of an aqueous solution of 0.444 M Ba(OH)2. What is the molarity of the acid solution? 2H3PO4 + 3Ba(OH)2→ 6H2O + Ba3(PO4 )2 Moles H+ = Moles OH- at equiv point Calculate moles of Ba(OH)2 (Molarity x Volume) 0.444 moles/L x 0.0555 L = 0.0246 moles 0.0246 moles Ba(OH)2 x 2 mol H3PO4 = 0.0164 mol H3PO4 3 mol Ba(OH)2 M = 0.0164 mols H3PO4 = 0.493 M H3PO4

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