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# Titration

• Indicators & pH Meters: The pH range over which an indicator changes color is its transition interval. pH meters measure the interval pH using electrodes. • Titration is the process of adding an acid to base until it is neutralized. (or vice versa) • Indicators are used to show when neutralization is reached.

More On Titrations
• Titrations are done to find the concentration of the unknown acid or base. • The correct indicator needs to be chosen so that it changes color right where acid = base or very close to this point. • The place where the indicator changes color is the end point. • The place where acid = base is the equivalence point.
– Titrations may be done on compounds that are not acids & bases if they react so that the two factors are in chemically equivalent amounts at the equivalence point & there is an indicator with an appropriate endpoint.

For a titration with a strong acid and a strong base the equivalence point occurs at approximately a pH of 7. 7

For a titration with a weak acid and a strong base the equivalence point occurs above a pH of 7. 7

Performing Titrations
• STEPS: • 1.) Use burets to accurately measure acid & base amounts. • 2.) Add one to the other until the indicator just barely changes color. color • If the acid & base involved are both monoprotic, M1V1=M2V2 ( or MHVH=MOHVOH ) can be used to find the unknown molarity. • If the acid & base involved have different amounts of H+ and OH-, then the balanced equation will have to be used along with dimensional analysis. (p502)

Sample Problem
• If 20.0 mL of 0.0100 M aqueous HCl is required to neutralize 30.0 mL of an aqueous solution of NaOH, determine the molarity of the NaOH solution. • MHVH=MOHVOH • (0.0100M) (20.0 mL) = (MOH)(30.0mL) • MOH = 6.67 x 10-3 M NaOH

Try it Out!
• In a titration, 27.4 mL of 0.154 M LiOH is added to a 25.0 mL HCl solution of unknown concentration. What is the molarity of the solution? • MHVH=MOHVOH • (MH)(25.0mL) = (27.4 mL)(0.154M) • MH= 0.169 M HCl