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Combustion Combination (synthesis) Decomposition Single – Replacement Double – Replacement

• An element or a compound reacts with oxygen producing energy as heat or light. • Exothermic • Requires fuel as a reactant; usually a hydrocarbon and must occur in the presence of oxygen gas. • There can be incomplete or complete combustion. If there is not enough oxygen, the reaction will be incomplete.

• The complete combustion of a hydrocarbon will ALWAYS produce carbon dioxide and water. water • General Equation:
– CxHy(l) + O2(g) → CO2(g) + H2O(l)

• Examples:
– C6H6(l) + O2(g) → CO2(g) + H2O(l) – CH3OH(l) + O2(g) → CO2(g) + H2O(l) – C7H16(l) + O2(g) → CO2(g) + H2O(l)

What is a Combination (synthesis) Reaction?
• Two or more substances combine to form a single substance. • Reactants are most commonly two elements or two compounds • The product of a combination reaction is always a compound. compound • Skeleton Equation: A + B → AB • Example: Mg(s) +Cl2(g) → MgCl2(aq)

Example
• Write the products for the following combination reaction:
Al(s) + O2(g) → Al2O3 (aq)
A B Al3+ O2-

AB

What is a Decomposition Reaction?
• A single substance is broken down to form two or more products. • When a simple binary compound breaks down, you know the products will be constituent elements. • Most decomposition reactions require energy in the form of heat, light, or electricity. • Skeleton Equation AB → A + B • Example: MgCl2(aq) → Mg(s) +Cl2(g)

Example
• Write the products for the following decomposition reaction:
Fe2S3 (aq) → Fe(s) + S(g)
AB A B

• One element replaces a second element in a compound.
– Metals can be replaced by more active metals.
• Most active – Li, K, Ba, Sr, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Ni, Sn • Least active- Pb, H, Cu, Hg, Ag, Au (see p.266)

– Halogens will replace each other
• F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 active) (F – most active, I – least

• Skeleton Equation A + BC → AC + B • Examples:

Try Some!
– Mg(s) + AgNO3(aq) → Mg(NO3)2(aq) + Ag(s)

– F2(g) + NaCl(aq) →

Cl2(g) + NaF(aq)

• Involves an exchange of positive ions between two reacting compounds. • Usually one of the products will do one or more of the following:
– Forms a precipitate
• If a precipitate forms, the reaction will occur. Solubility rules can be used to predict if a precipitate forms. (See p. 427)

– Form a gas that bubbles away – Form a molecular compound (ex. Water).

• Skeleton Equation
AB + CD → AD + CB

• Examples:
– Na2S(aq) + Cd(NO3)2(aq) → NaNO3(aq) + CdS(aq)

How About Some More?
– NaCN(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + HCN(aq)

– Ca(OH)2(aq) + HCl(aq) →

CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l)

Redox Reactions
If the oxidation # of an element changes in a reaction, it is a redox reaction. If the oxidation # goes up, the element is oxidized. If the oxidation # goes down, the element is reduced.

What was the last black and white film to win Best Picture?

Schindler’s List (1993)