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• Oxidation numbers reflect the charges on the atoms/ions involved in a compound.

• Normally, oxidation numbers can be found from the column the element is in on the periodic table (recall Ch.5). • Sometimes these numbers don’t exactly describe what is going on inside the atom. There is a system of assigning oxidation numbers. • Rules for Oxidation Numbers
– 1) Monatomic ions: oxidation # the same as the ionic charges. – 2) H has oxidation number +1 except in hydrides (ex. NaH) where it is -1. – 3) O has oxidation # -2 except in peroxides (ex.H2O2 ) where it is -1. – 4) Uncombined elements have oxidation numbers = 0. – 5) For neutral compounds, sum of oxidation numbers = 0. – 6) For polyatomic ions, sum of oxidation numbers =

• Prefixes:
– – – – – 1 2 3 4 5 MonoDiTriTetraPenta– – – – – 6 Hexa7 Hepta8 Octa9 Nona10 Deca-

• NO2 • CO2 • SO3 • PCl5 • SF6 • BF3 • CCl4

• • • •

Nitrogen dioxide Carbon dioxide Sulfur trioxide Phosphorus pentachloride • Sulfur hexafluoride • Boron trifluoride • Carbon tetrachloride

• Metal + Non-metal - Add the cation name to the anion name – remember to add –ide to monoatomic anions. • Rule is applied when using polyatomic ions also!

• Examples:
– – – – – NaCl = Sodium Chloride Fluoride Potassium KF = ? Barium Nitrate Ba(NO3 )2 = Magnesium Cyanide ? Mg(CN)2 = Cesium Sulfate ? Cs2SO4 = ?

• Name + it’s charge in Roman Numerals.
– Fe3+ = Iron (III) ion – PbO = Lead (II) Oxide – Cu2O = Copper (I) Oxide

• Stock or “Old” way of Naming
– -ous ending is lowest charge
• Cuprous ion = Cu+

– -ic ending is highest charge
• Cupric ion = Cu2+

(see pg. 205 for more) Metals • Lead • Silver • Tin • Iron • Zinc • Copper • Nickel

Charges • Pb 2+/4+, II and IV • Ag 1+ (always) • Sn 2+/4+, II and IV • Fe 2+/3+, II and III • Zn 2+ (always) • Cu 1+/2+ I and II • Ni 2+/3+ II and III

• Ag2O • KCl • Cu(ClO3)2 • FeS • Al2O3 • PbO2

Silver Oxide Potassium Chloride Copper (II) Chlorate Iron (II) Sulfide Aluminum Oxide Lead (IV) Oxide

• Calcium Hydroxide • Lithium Nitride • Tin (II) Sulfate • Copper (II) Bromide • Lithium Phosphate • Iron (II) Phosphide

• Ca(OH)2 • Li3N • SnSO4 • CuBr2 • Li3PO4 • Fe3P2

• Acid – compound containing the H+ ion at the beginning.
– Example:
• HCl • HNO3 • H2SO4

• Neutralization – when acids react with bases, they make salt & water. Salts are made from the acid anion & the base cation .

• Binary Acids (no oxygen) – add Hydroprefix to the beginning of the name and change –ide to –ic ending.
– Example:
• HCl = Hydrochloric Acid • H2S = Hydrosulfuric Acid

• Oxy Acids – contain oxygen Change –ate endings to –ic and –ite ending to -ous
– Example
• • • • HNO3 = Nitric Acid HNO2 = Nitrous Acid H2SO4 = Sulfuric Acid H2SO3 = Sulfurous Acid

• HI • H2CO3 • H3P • H3PO4 • HClO3 • HF • HNO2

• Hydroiodic Acid • Carbonic Acid • Hydrophosphoric acid • Phosphoric Acid • Chloric Acid • Hydrofluoric Acid • Nitrous Acid

Why was the original Thanksgiving (and others after it) celebrated on Thursday?
The Pilgrims has two prayer gathering a week – Sunday and Thursday. They wanted to give thanks during mid week prayer – thus it was celebrated on Thursday.