# Slide 6-1

COMPLEX NUMBERS
AND POLAR
COORDINATES

8.1 Complex Numbers
8.2 Trigonometric Form for
Complex Numbers

Chapter 8
Slide 8-2
 and
 i is the imaginary unit
 Numbers in the form a + bi are called complex
numbers
 a is the real part
 b is the imaginary part

If 0, then . > ÷ = a a i a
i
2
= ÷1
i = ÷1
8.1 Complex Numbers
Slide 8-3
Examples
 a) b)

 c)

 d) e)
25 25 5 i i ÷ = = 30 30 i ÷ =
125 125 25 5 5 5 i i i ÷ = = · =
( )
2
2
3 3 3 3
3
1 3
3
i i
i
÷ · ÷ = ·
=
= ÷ ·
= ÷
98 98
49 49
98
2
49
i i
÷ ÷
=
= =
Slide 8-4
Equations
 Solve x = ÷25
 Take the square root on both sides.

 The solution set is {±5i}.

2
2
25
25
25
5
= ÷
= ± ÷
= ±
= ±
x
x
x i
x i
Slide 8-5
Another Example
 Solve: x
2
+ 54 = 0

 The solution set is

2
2
54 0
54
54
54 9 6
3 6
+ =
= ÷
= ± ÷
= ± = ± ·
= ±
x
x
x
x i i
x i
{ }
3 6 . ± i
Slide 8-6
Example: Products and Quotients
 Multiply:  Divide:
8 8. ÷ · ÷
( )
2
2
2
8 8 8 8
8 1
8
8
1
= ÷
÷ · ÷ =
÷
·
= ·
= ·
= ÷
i i
i i
56
.
8
÷
8 8
56 5
5
7
6
6
8
=
=
=
÷
i
i
i
Slide 8-7
Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers
 For complex numbers a + bi and c + di,

 Examples

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
a bi c di a c b d i
a bi c di a c b d i
+ + + = + + +
+ ÷ + = ÷ + ÷
(10 ÷ 4i) ÷ (5 ÷ 2i)
= (10 ÷ 5) + [÷4 ÷ (÷2)]i
= 5 ÷ 2i

(4 ÷ 6i) + (÷3 + 7i)
= [4 + (÷3)] + [÷6 + 7]i
= 1 + i
Slide 8-8
Multiplication of Complex
Numbers
 For complex numbers a + bi and c + di,

 The product of two complex numbers is found by
multiplying as if the numbers were binomials and
using the fact that i
2
= ÷1.

(a+bi)(c + di) = (ac ÷bd) +(ad +bc)i.
Slide 8-9
Examples: Multiplying
 (2 ÷ 4i)(3 + 5i)

 (7 + 3i)
2

2
2(3) 2(5 ) 4 (3) 4 (5 )
6 10 12 20
6 2 20( 1)
26 2
i i i i
i i i
i
i
= + ÷ ÷
= + ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷
2 2
2
7 2(7)(3 ) (3 )
49 42 9
49 42 9( 1)
40 42
i i
i i
i
i
= + +
= + +
= + + ÷
= +
Slide 8-10
Powers of i
 i
1
= i i
5
= i i
9
= i

 i
2
= ÷1 i
6
= ÷1 i
10
= ÷1

 i
3
= ÷i i
7
= ÷i i
11
= ÷i

 i
4
= 1 i
8
= 1 i
12
= 1
and so on.

Slide 8-11
Simplifying Examples
 i
17

i
4
= 1

i
17
= (i
4
)
4
• i
= 1 • i
= i
 i
÷4

4
1 1
1
1 i
= =
Slide 8-12
Property of Complex Conjugates
For real numbers a and b,
(a + bi)(a ÷ bi) = a
2
+ b
2
.

The product of a complex
number and its conjugate
is always a real number.

 Example
2
2
5 3
2
(5 3 )(2 )
(2 )(2 )
10 5 6 3
4
7 11
5
7 11
5 5
i
i
i i
i i
i i i
i
i
i
+
÷
+ +
=
÷ +
+ + +
=
÷
+
=
= +
Slide 8-13
 We modify the familiar coordinate system by
calling the horizontal axis the real axis and the
vertical axis the imaginary axis.
 Each complex number a + bi determines a
unique position vector with initial point (0, 0) and
terminal point (a, b).
8.2 Trigonometric Form for Complex Numbers

Slide 8-14
Relationships Among x, y, r,
and u

x = r cosu
y = r sinu
r = x
2
+ y
2
tanu =
y
x
, if x = 0
Slide 8-15
Trigonometric (Polar) Form of
a Complex Number
 The expression

is called the trigonometric form or (polar form)
of the complex number x + yi. The expression
cos u + i sin u is sometimes abbreviated cis u.
Using this notation
(cos sin ) r i u u +
(cos sin ) is written cis . r i r u u u +
Slide 8-16
Example
 Express 2(cos 120° + i sin 120°) in rectangular form.

 Notice that the real part is negative and the imaginary
part is positive, this is consistent with 120 degrees being
1
cos120
2
= ÷
3
sin120
2
=
1 3
2(cos120 sin120 ) 2 ,
2 2
1 3
i i
i
| |
+ = ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ +
Slide 8-17
Converting from Rectangular Form
to Trigonometric Form
 Step 1 Sketch a graph of the number x + yi in
the complex plane.

 Step 2 Find r by using the equation

 Step 3 Find u by using the equation
indicated in Step 1.
2 2
. r x y = +
tan , 0
y
x
x u = =
Slide 8-18
Example
 Example: Find trigonometric notation for ÷1 ÷ i.
 First, find r.

 Thus,

2 2
2 2
( 1) ( 1)
2
r a b
r
r
= +
= ÷ + ÷
=
1 2 1 2
sin cos
2 2
2 2
5
4
u u
t
u
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = = =
=
5 5 5
1 2 cos sin or 2 cis
4 4 4
i i
t t t
| |
÷ ÷ = +
|
\ .
Slide 8-19
Product Theorem
 If are any
two complex numbers, then

 In compact form, this is written
( )
1 1 1
cos sin and r i u u = +
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
cos sin cos sin
cos sin .
r i r i
r r i
u u u u
u u u u
( ( + · +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( = + + +
¸ ¸
( )
2 2 2
cos sin , r i u u +
( )( ) ( )
1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2
cis cis cis . r r r r u u u u = +
Slide 8-20
Example: Product
 Find the product of
4(cos50 sin50 ) and 2(cos10 sin10 ). i i + +

4(cos50 + i sin50 )

¸
(
¸
· 2(cos10 + i sin10 )

¸
(
¸
= 4· 2 cos(50 +10 ) + i sin(50 +10 )

¸
(
¸
= 8(cos60 + i sin60 )
= 8
1
2
+ i
3
2
|
\

|
.
|
= 4 + 4i 3
Slide 8-21
Quotient Theorem
 If
are any two complex numbers, where then
( )
1 1 1
cos sin and r i u u = +
( )
2 2 2
cos sin r i u u +
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 1 1
1
1 2 1 2
2 2 2 2
1 1 1
1 2
2 2 2
cos sin
cos sin .
cos sin
In compact form, this is written
cis
cis
cis
r i
r
i
r i r
r r
r r
u u
u u u u
u u
u
u u
u
+
( = ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
+
= ÷
( )
2 2 2 2
cos sin , 0, r i r u u + =
Slide 8-22
Example: Quotient
 Find the quotient.
16(cos70 sin70 ) and 4(cos40 sin40 ) i i + +

16(cos70 + i sin70 )
4(cos40 + i sin40 )
=
16
4
cos(70 ÷ 40 ) + i sin(70 ÷ 40 )
( )
= 4cos30 + i sin30
= 4
3
2
+
1
2
i
|
\

|
.
|
= 2 3 + 2i
Slide 8-23
De Moivre’s Theorem
 If is a complex number, and if
n is any real number, then

 In compact form, this is written
( )
1 1 1
cos sin r i u u = +
( ) ( )
1 1
cos sin cos sin .
n
n
r i r n i n u u u u ( + = +
¸ ¸
| | ( )
cis cis .
n
n
r r n u u =
Slide 8-24
Example: Find (÷1 ÷ i)
5
and express the result in
rectangular form.

 First, find trigonometric notation for ÷1 ÷ i

 Theorem

( )
1 2 cos225 sin225 i i ÷ ÷ = +
( )
( )
( )
( )
5
5
5
2 5 225 5 2
1 2 cos 225 sin 225
cos( ) sin( )
4 2 cos1125 sin1125
2 2
4 2
2 2
25
4 4
i i
i
i
i
i
(
÷ ÷ = +
¸ ¸

· ·
(
= +
¸ ¸
= +
| |
= +
|
\ .
= +
Slide 8-25
nth Roots
 For a positive integer n, the complex number
a + bi is an nth root of the complex number x + yi
if

( )
.
n
a bi x yi + = +
Slide 8-26
nth Root Theorem
 If n is any positive integer, r is a positive real
number, and u is in degrees, then the nonzero
complex number r(cos u + i sin u) has exactly n
distinct nth roots, given by

 where
( )
cos sin or cis ,
n n
r i r o o o +
360 360
or = , 0,1, 2,..., 1.
k k
k n
n n n
u u
o o
+ · ·
= + = ÷
Slide 8-27
Example: Square Roots
 Find the square roots of
 Trigonometric notation:

 For k = 0, root is
 For k = 1, root is

1+ 3
( )
i

1+ 3
( )
i = 2 cos60+ i sin60
( )

2 cos60 + i sin60
( )

¸
(
¸
1
2
= 2
1
2
cos
60
2
+ k ·
360
2
|
\

|
.
|
+ i sin
60
2
+ k ·
360
2
|
\

|
.
|

¸

(
¸
(
= 2 cos 30 + k ·180
( )
+ i sin 30 + k ·180
( )

¸
(
¸

2 cos30 + i sin30
( )

2 cos210 + i sin210
( )
Slide 8-28
Example: Fourth Root
 Find all fourth roots of Write the
roots in rectangular form.
 Write in trigonometric form.

 Here r = 16 and u = 120°. The fourth roots of this
number have absolute value
8 8 3. i ÷ +
8 8 3 16 cis 120 i ÷ + =
4
16 2. =
120 360
30 90
4 4
k
k
o
·
= + = + ·
Slide 8-29
Example: Fourth Root
continued
 There are four fourth roots, let k = 0, 1, 2 and 3.

 Using these angles, the fourth roots are

0 30 90 30
1 30 90 120
2 30 90 210
3 30 90
0
1
2
3 300
k
k
k
k
o
o
o
o
= = + · =
= = + · =
= = + · =
= = + · =
2 cis 30 , 2 cis 120 , 2 cis 210 , 2 cis 300
Slide 8-30
Example: Fourth Root
continued
 Written in rectangular
form

 The graphs of the roots
are all on a circle that has
center at the origin and
3
1 3
3
1 3
i
i
i
i
+
÷ +
÷ ÷
÷
Slide 8-31
Polar Coordinate System
 The polar coordinate
system is based on a
point, called the pole, and
a ray, called the polar
axis.
Slide 8-32
Rectangular and Polar
Coordinates
 If a point has rectangular coordinates (x, y) and
polar coordinates (r, u), then these coordinates
are related as follows.
2 2
r x y = +
cos x r u =
sin y r u =
tan , 0
y
x
x
u = =
Slide 8-33
Example
 Plot the point on a polar
coordinate system. Then
determine the rectangular
coordinates of the point.
P(2, 30°)
r = 2 and u = 30°, so point P
is located 2 units from the
origin in the positive
direction making a 30°
angle with the polar axis.
Slide 8-34
Example continued
 Using the conversion formulas:

 The rectangular coordinates are
cos
2cos30
3
2 3
2
x r
x
x
u =
=
| |
= =
|
\ .
sin
2sin30
1
2 1
2
y r
y
y
u =
=
| |
= =
|
\ .
1
3, .
2
| |
|
\ .
Slide 8-35
Example
 Convert (4, 2) to polar coordinates.

 Thus (r, u) =

2 2
2 2
4 2
16 4
20 2 5
r x y
r
r
r
= +
= +
= +
= =

tanu =
2
4
=
1
2
u ~ 26.6

2 5, 26.6
( )
Slide 8-36
Rectangular and Polar
Equations
 To convert a rectangular equation into a polar
equation, use
r =
c
acosu +bsinu
.

y = r sinu
and
and solve for r.
you will get the polar equation
For the linear equation

ax +by = c,

x = r cosu
Slide 8-37
Example
 Convert x + 2y = 10 into a polar equation.
x + 2y = 10

cos sin
cos sin 1
10
cos 2s
1
in
0
2
r
b a
c
r
r
u u
u u
u u
=
+
=
+
=
+
Slide 8-38
Example
 Graph r = ÷2 sin u

1
1.414
2
0
-1
-
1.414
r
330
315
270
180
150
135
u
-
1.732
120
-2 90
-
1.732
60
-
1.414
-1
0
r
45
30
0
u
Slide 8-39
Example
 Graph r = 2 cos 3u
0 ÷1.41 ÷2 ÷1.41 0 1.41 2
r
90 75 60 45 30 15 0 u
Slide 8-40
Example
 Convert r = ÷3 cos u ÷ sin u into a rectangular
equation.

2
2 2
2 2
3cos sin
3 cos sin
3
3
r
r r r
x y x y
x x y y
u u
u u
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷
+ = ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷
Slide 8-41
Circles and Lemniscates
Slide 8-42
Limacons
Slide 8-43
Rose Curves