You are on page 1of 27

Lecture on Solar Energy

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

What is solar Energy? It is a green energy Works with solar panels which are eco-friendly

electric generators Solar panels generate free power from the sun by converting sunlight to electricity with no moving parts, zero emissions, and no maintenance. The solar panel, the first component of an electric solar energy system, is a collection of individual silicon cells that generate electricity from sunlight. The photons (light particles) produce an electrical current as they strike the surface of the thin silicon wafers
2 Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng) 30 July 2013

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

Types of Solar panels Monocrystalline solar panels

The most efficient and expensive solar panels are made with Monocrystalline cells. These solar cells use very pure silicon and involve a complicated crystal growth process they have the highest output for a given surface area and can last as long as 25 years. Polycrystalline solar panels Often called Multi-crystalline, solar panels made with Polycrystalline cells are a little less expensive & slightly less efficient than Monocrystalline cells because the cells are not grown in single crystals but in a large block of many crystals. cells are sliced from a cast silicon block and have an appearance of shattered glass. they have a lower efficiency but they have a similar life span to the monocrystalline types while sometimes being a bit cheaper per watt Amorphous solar panels These are not really crystals, but a thin layer of silicon deposited on a base by: material as metal or glass to create the solar panel 30 July 2013 Prepared Rustom such Hannes (Elec. Eng)

Site survey for PV panels Points to be considered in site selection: Shading and shadowing in solar panels Temperature and wind loading considerations Types of solar array mountings fixed mounting Adjustable mounting Tracking

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

Mounting direction for PV panels


most of the time orientation of the solar panels is done based on the study of the maximum the panel can meet the sunlight in Eritrea typical orientation is around 15 to 30 degrees due south

10

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

11

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

Important element of Solar Energy System

PV panels
Batteries Charge Controller Inverter DC Cable

12

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

Solar Panels Photovoltaic (PV) panels convert sunlight directly into electricity. 2. True Sine Wave Inverter 12, 24 and 48 Volt
1.

True sine wave inverters


manufactured to exacting standards to produce clean AC power from a DC power source. What level of quality? The AC output from a true sine wave inverter meets or exceeds grid power specifications with very low harmonic distortion.

13

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

300 Watt 24 Volt DC to AC Inverter

14

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

3.Charge Controller

15

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

Why a Charge Controller is necessary?


Since the brighter the sunlight, the more voltage the solar cells

produce, the excessive voltage could damage the batteries. A charge controller is used to maintain the proper charging voltage on the batteries. As the input voltage from the solar array rises, the charge controller regulates the charge to the batteries preventing any over charging. Modern multi-stage charge controllers Most quality charge controller units have what is known as a 3 stage charge cycle that goes like this :

16

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

Load analysis
A quick and easy load analysis can be done by looking at an electric bill. You may find energy usage from 5 kWHour to 30kWHour per day, depending on the type of electric appliances used. If you are interested in lowering your electric bill, it will pay to look into more efficient lights and appliances. If you are looking to meet all or most of your needs with a solar electric system, you will almost certainly have to eliminate huge loads like electric water heaters and ovens. Tools and pumps are not a problem because they are not on for long periods of time.

17

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

Solar Electrical System Sizing Information


To begin sizing a solar electrical system, you need to determine your power consumption demands Make a list of the appliances and/or loads you are going to run from your solar electric system Find out how much power each item consumes while operating. Calculate your AC loads Calculate your DC loads

18

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

Solar Battery Sizing Sheet


To Calculate Solar Battery Bank Sizing

19

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

The first decision you have to make is how much storage you

would like your battery bank to provide Often this is expressed as "days of autonomy" because it is based on the number of days you expect your system you should also consider your usage pattern and the critical nature of your application.

20

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

Solar Panel Wiring


In order to get the desired voltage and current solar panel wiring system is very important

21

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

22

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

23

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

24

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

25

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

Thank you

26

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013

27

Prepared by: Rustom Hannes (Elec. Eng)

30 July 2013