You are on page 1of 45



Secrets of Best MySQL Optimization
Presented by – Sonali Minocha OSSCube

Who Am I?

Why Tune a Database?

Who Tunes?

What is Tuned?

How much tuning is enough?

Application Development (Optimizing Queries)

Index Optimizations

MySQL Cluster Tutorial, OSSPAC 09 Singapore, © OSSCube

system const eq_ref ref ref_or_null index_merge unique_subquery index_subquery range index ALL The table has only one row At the most one matching row, treated as a constant One row per row from previous tables Several rows with matching index value Like ref, plus NULL values Several index searches are merged Same as ref for some subqueries As above for non-unique indexes A range index scan The whole index is scanned A full table scan

Using index Using where Distinct Not exists Using filesort Using temporary Range checked for each record The result is created straight from the index Not all rows are used in the result Only a single row is read per row combination A LEFT JOIN missing rows optimization is used An extra row sorting step is done A temporary table is used The read type is optimized individually for each combination of rows from the previous tables

Optimizer Hints
STRAIGHT_JOIN SQL_BIG_RESULTS Forces the optimizer to join the tables in the given order Together with GROUP BY or DISTINCT tells the server to use disk-based temp tables

SQL_BUFFER_RESULTS Tells the server to use a temp table, thus releasing locks early (for table-locks) USE INDEX FORCE INDEX IGNORE INDEX Hints to the optimizer to use the given index Forces the optimizer to use the index (if possible) Forces the optimizer not the use the index

• The slow query log

Selecting Queries to Optimize

– Logs all queries that take longer than long_query_time – Can also log all queries that don’t use indexes with --log-queries-not-using-indexes – To log slow administrative commands use --log-slow-admin-statements – To analyze the contents of the slow log use mysqldumpslow

• The general query log can be use to analyze:
– Reads vs. writes – Simple queries vs. complex queries – etc

Database Designing (Optimizing Schemas)


Table Optimizations

Choosing Best Suited Storage Engine

• Understanding benefits and drawbacks of each storage engine is very important while designing application. • Different storage engine has different index capability ,application need should be kept in mind while choosing storage engine

MyISAM-Specific Optimizations

InnoDB-Specific Optimizations • InnoDB uses clustered indexes
– The length of the PRIMARY KEY is extremely important

• The rows are always dynamic
– Using VARCHAR instead of CHAR is almost always better

• Maintenance operations needed after
– Many UPDATE/DELETE operations
• The pages can become underfilled

Monitoring Threads in MySQL

MEMORY-Specific Optimizations

Optimizing the Server

Performance Monitoring

Tuning MySQL Parameters
• Some MySQL options can be changed online • The dynamic options are either
– SESSION specific
• Changing the value will only affect the current connection

• Changing the value will affect the whole server

– Both

• Online changes are not persistant over a server restart
– The configuration files have to be changed as well

• The current values of all options can be found with SHOW SESSION/GLOBAL VARIABLES

Status Variables

SQL/Parser Model
Client1 Client2 ClientN

MySQL Server Connection Thread Pool

Query Cache Parser
Query 101101

Storage Engines


 InnoDB  MyISAM  MERGE  MEMORY  Federated  ARCHIVE  NDBCluster

Query Cache
• Stores SELECT queries and their results • Purpose: improve performance for frequently requested data • The data in the query cache is invalidated as soon as a modification is done in the table • Controlled with the query_cache_size variable

• The Qcache_% status variables help monitoring the cache
– The utilisation ratio: Qcache_hits vs. Com_select

• The query cache can be emptied with RESET QUERY CACHE

Some Thread Specific Options
• read_buffer_size (default 128Kb) and read_rnd_buffer_size (default 256Kb) – Size of cache used for table scanning – Not equivalent to block size • The database is not divided into blocks but directly into records – Increase if you do many sequential scans • sort_buffer_size (default 2Mb) – Size of the GROUP BY / ORDER BY cache – If more memory is needed it will be taken from the disk • tmp_table_size (default 32Mb) – Limit after which temporary tables will not be

Some Global Options
• table_cache (default 64)
– Cache for storing open table handlers – Increase this if Opened_tables is high

• thread_cache (default 0)
– Number of threads to keep for reuse – Increase if threads_created is high – Not useful if the client uses connection pooling

• max_connections (default 100)
– The maximum allowed number of simultaneous connections – Very important for tuning thread specific memory areas – Each connection uses at least thread_stack of memory

MyISAM Global Options
• key_buffer_size (default 8Mb)
– Cache for storing indices – Increase this to get better index handling – Miss ratio (key_reads/key_read_requests) should be very low, at least < 0.03 (often < 0.01 is desirable)

• Row caching is handled by the OS

MyISAM Thread-Specific Options • myisam_sort_buffer_size (default 8Mb)
– Used when sorting indexes during REPAIR/ALTER TABLE

• myisam_repair_threads (default 1)
– Used for bulk import and repairing – Allows for repairing indexes in multiple threads

• myisam_max_sort_file_size
– The max size of the file used while recreating indexes

InnoDB-Specific Optimization
• innodb_buffer_pool_size (default 8Mb)
– The memory buffer InnoDB uses to cache both data and indexes – The bigger you set this the less disk i/o is needed – Can be set very high (up to 80% on a dedicated system)

• innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit (default 1)
– 0 writes and sync’s once per second (not ACID) – 1 forces sync to disk after every commit – 2 write to disk every commit but only sync’s about once per second

InnoDB-Specific Optimization
• innodb_log_buffer_size (default 1Mb)
– Larger values allows for larger transactions to be logged in memory – Sensible values range from 1M to 8M

• innodb_log_file_size (default 5Mb)
– Size of each InnoDB redo log file – Can be set up to buffer_pool_size

Thank you for your time and attention

For more information, please feel free to drop in a line to or visit