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Chapter 14: EDUCATION


Educational Structures
Defined as a preparation for effective participation in social relations. Sociologically speaking, education is the consciously controlled process whereby changes in behavior are produced in the person and through the person in the group. Education is a major factor in economic growth.

• Informal education is learning through interaction with others in the group. example. . observation. or occupational group. play group. Ideas and facts are acquired through suggestions. imitation. and inculcation from the family. neighborhood .Informal Education Education may be formal or informal.


. elementary level. Formal education is achieved in stages: preschool level. formal instruction method. It sets definite objectives and goals reached through systematized.Formal Education • Formal education is synonymous with “school. secondary level. and tertiary level or university level.



The printing press became and instrument in the mass production of reading materials. India. EDUCATION IN EARLY SOCIETIES . the family provides education. which were prepared for the different stages of education.In simple societies. The early reading materials are the forerunners of today’s textbooks. Greece. Babylonia. assisted by elderly members of the community who are called specialist. The widespread establishment of the school system was made possible with the invention of the printing press in the mid-15th century. Egypt. Learning then became structured and graduated experience and appropriate printed materials were designed for purpose of this structure. The first schools were established in China. and Rome.

Early Writing Materials .


mathematics. • Attitudes. • Includes knowledge. and norms of society. and science that are familiar to most students. Values.To transmit the cultural heritage • Remains the traditional function of education. • Imitation & Inculcation . language.

Training of an adequate number of people according to the demands of specialized jobs market c. • The points to consider when making adjustments are: • a. b.To help individual select social roles and to train them for the roles they’ve chosen • Education is also aimed to developing new social patterns that will bring about different specialization. Matching the talents and abilities of the work force with specialization needed so that there will be a balance of people who are capable of performing the jobs to fill. along with the necessary facilities which the school should provide. Careful planning of the subject and courses. .


To integrate into the cultural mainstream the various subcultures and identities. The function of education to socially integrate different groups into the cultural mainstream must be maximized as many countries with internal strife are composed of people that is diverse .

To serve as source of social and cultural innovation. School activities should be geared towards the development of curiosity and initiative. arrive . with students learning to conduct their own investigation.


Educational systems reflect the economic. and religious values of society. . political. social.


• Philippine education has been influenced by the Spanish and American colonizers. . • They brought with them educational materials that reflected the ideologies of their countries and the ideals inculcated were representations of their culture.

• The method of learning as memorization.• The objective of education under the Spanish colonizers was to teach moral and religious subjects. • Before 1863. using the Spanish language as medium of instruction. and the punishment meted out was whipping. . schools set up in the barrios were small thatched buildings called visitas.

 There were many schools established during Spanish colonial period.  Higher education primarily served the upper classes. Higher education placed great emphasis on virtue and letters.  The educated class was the ilustrado. . a “badge of social standing and prestige”. a degree being a status symbol.

the emphasis on Christianity and the transmission of the Spanish culture shifted towards the development of new social patterns. When the Americans took over the reigns of government in 1899.   The Educational Degree of 1863 provided for the establishment of a complete system of education. organized the general system of public instruction and authorized the establishment of private schools. The Educational Act 1901. .

       At present. the Philippine educational system is a bureaucratic structure under the supervision of the state. Department of Education The Commission on Higher Education Technical Education and Skills Development Authority Educational Act of 1982 PCSPE EDCOM .


Computers & Internets The internet has made its impact on information technology. It makes the accessibility of academic resources faster and more convenient. ideas. . and attitude are exchanged in real times. News and discussions groups can now also be set up instantly while opinions.