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More Cognitive Dissonance Occurs When

1) Choice is involved 2) Commitment has been made 3) Individuals are responsible for any consequences of their behavior (and if the consequences could be anticipated) 4) Negative consequences are believed to be likely to occur

5) One’s self-concept is involved

SELF-PERCEPTION THEORY DARYL BEM Internal States (e.. physiological) “Gross” evaluation (e. “So-called “private” stimuli.g.g. “I feel sad” Use of external social cues for precise discriminations (e.g. statements. thoughts) Attitudes formed .. “I feel happy”.. other people’s behavior or one’s own actions.

SELF-PERCEPTION STUDY Attutude survey (on environmental issues Behavioral survey (what people actually did about environmental issues Attitude survey (on environmental issues WEAK STRONG Those with weak initial environmental attitudes had their attitudes affected by their responses to the behavior questionnaire .

Do Changing Attitudes Lead to Changes in Behavior? • Norms regarding proper behavior in a given situation (& consequences) • Availability or absence of alternatives • Extraneous events .

Factors Affecting The Consistency of Attitudes and Behaviors ATTITUDES • Specific • Strength • Accessibility Role of personal experience BEVAVIOR Range of behaviors assessed .

g. personal relevance) . distracters. message complexity) • Motivation (e. Superficial Analyses of Information • Ability (IQ.Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Central Processing Peripheral Processing In-Depth Thought. Detailed Analyses of Information “Lazy” Thinking. knowledge base..

attractive source. new thoughts stored in memory) Central positive attitude change Central negative attitude change Relatively permanent attitudes.. message comprehensibility) Yes Message No Peripheral Cues Present in Message? (e.g.g. knowledge.. More predictive of behavior .g.. responsibility Yes Ability to Process? (e.. need for cognition.~ ELM Detail ~ Motivation to Process? (e. emotional content) Yes Peripheral Processing No Keep initial attitude Nature of Cognitive Processing Favorable thoughts Unfavorable thoughts Neutral thoughts Cognitive Structure Change (e. relevance. distractions.g.

Issue: To institute a comprehensive university exit exam STUDY OF ELM MODEL Low Low argument quality High argument quality Status of Presenter Low High Relevance High Relevance Low High If high perceived relevance exists. argument quality is most important .