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BODY FLUIDS

University of the Cordilleras
Dorothy Silva-Jamero

Urine

is liquid waste product of the body secreted by the kidneys by a process of filtration from blood and excreted through the urethra. This waste is eventually expelled from the body in a process known as urination.

Urine

Composition
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Water Electrolytes Nitrogen Acid Metabolites Dissolved heavy metals Glucose Bacteria

Urine

Properties
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Color Odor pH Transparency Specific gravity

.Urine  Test for Urea  Phenol red (also known as phenolsulfonphthalein or PSP) is a pH indicator that is frequently used in cell biology laboratories.

Phenol red .

colorless.Urea Crystals   Long. rhombic prisms Soluble in water and alcohol .

Uric acid crystals   Final product of purine oxidation Reddish crystals .

Creatinine   a waste product formed by the slow. spontaneous degradation of creatine phosphate (muscles) useful for assessing kidney function picric acid + NaOH ---red color .

Creatinine .

Glucose  Benedict’s Test   Test for glucose Normally there is very little or no glucose in urine .

diacetic acid and acetone in urine Test used to determine level of acetone in the urine in order to determine existence of ketosis and diabetes mellitus.  .Acetone bodies  Rothera’s Test  test for the presence of ketone bodies.

5. trace ketone. and marked glucosuria Normal urine . +++ blood. pH 8.Acetone bodies trace protein. + bilirubin.

Albumin    Proteinuria describes a condition in which urine contains an abnormal amount of protein Acetic acid – increases precipitation on the heated protein solution turbid .

Blood .

Blood   Only fluid tissue in the human body Connective tissue   Living cells = formed elements Non-living matrix = plasma (90% water)  5 times thicker than water .

Physical Characteristics  Color   Oxygen rich = scarlet red Oxygen poor = dull red     pH = 7.35 to 7.45 Slightly alkaline Temperature  Slightly higher than the body temperature 5.6 liters of about 6 quarts/body .

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Formed Elements    Erythrocytes = red blood cells Leukocytes = white blood cells Thrombocytes = platelets .

Erythrocytes .

Erythrocytes   Carry oxygen Anatomy:    Biconcave Bags of hemoglobin (250 hemoglobin/RBC) Anucleate (no nucleus)  1000:1 (ratio of RBC to WBC) .

Leukocytes     Defense against disease Complete cells Diapedesis Respond to chemicals released by damaged tissues .

000 cells/mL Abnormal  Leukocytosis   Above 11.Leukocyte Levels in the Blood   Normal = 4.000 to 11.000 cells/mL Generally indicates infection Abnormally low leukocyte level Caused by certain drugs  Leukopenia   .

Types of Leukocytes .

000 cells/mm3 .Thrombocytes    Derived from ruptured multinucleate cells (megakaryocytes) Needed for clotting process Normal platelet count = 300.

Hematopoiesis    Blood cell formation Occurs in red bone marrow All blood cells are derived from a common stem cell (hemocytoblast) .

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grow or synthesize proteins Wear out in 100 to 120 days   Are eliminated by phagocytes in the spleen or liver Lost cells are replaced by division of stem cells .Fate of Erythrocytes   Unable to divide.

Hemostasis   Stoppage of blood flow (break in a blood vessel) Three phases    Platelet plug formation Vascular spasms coagulation .

blood loss.Vessel damage. vascular spasm .

Platelet plug forms .

Coagulation .

Coagulation .

Blood Clotting    Blood usually clots within 3 to 6 minutes Clot remains as endothelium regenerates Clot is broken down after tissue repair .

Undesirable Clotting  Thrombus   A clot in an unbroken blood vessel Can be deadly in areas like the heart Thrombus that breaks away and floats freely in the bloodstream Can later clog vessels in critical areas such as the brain  Embolus   .

Blood Groups and Transfusions  Large losses of blood have serious consequences:   Loss of 15% to 30% = weakness Loss of over 30% = shock  Transfusions are the only way to replace blood quickly .

Human Blood Groups   There are over 30 common red blood cell antigens The most vigorous transfusion reactions are caused by ABO and Rh blood group antigens .

Blood Groups .

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blood .Rh Blood Groups    Named such because of the presence or absence of one of eight Rh antigens (agglutinogen D) Most Americans are Rh+ Problems can occru in mixing Rh+ blood into a body with Rh.

Rh Factor .

Prevention and Treatment   Rh immune-globulin shots during her first pregnancy Exchange transfusions .

it serves as a histochemical stain specific for differentiated red blood cells .Benzidine Test   Benzidine is a reagent that forms a blue precipitate upon oxidation by the heme group of hemoglobin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide.

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Hemin Test  Formation of dark brown or chocolate-colored crystals of hemin  Presence of blood .

Test for Glucose  Benedict’s Test  Brick red precipitate .

Test for Phosphate  Light green to molybdenum blue .

Test for Chlorides  Formation of cloudy white precipitate .

. Iron(III) reacts with the thiocyanate ion (SCN-) to produce the bright red FeSCN2+ ion.Test for Iron   Combine an unknown with aqueous KSCN to confirm the presence of iron (III) ions.

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reduced hemoglobin is of a purplish color.Test for Oxyhemoglobin and Reduced Hemoglobin   Oxyhemoglobin is scarlet in color. hooked to a clump of protein called globin. A hemoglobin molecule consists of a porphyrin ring with a central iron atom (heme). . Hemoglobin is a member of the same class of porphyrins to which chlorophyll also belongs.

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The End .